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Content available remote Who gets Social Transfers in Poland?
In the article the authoress is trying to answer the question whether social transfers in Poland go to the poorest households and those, who need them most. Using recent data for Poland, form European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, she analyses the distribution of the sum of social transfers (divided by different types of transfers) into income deciles. She also compares the information about receiving certain types of transfers with information about some other aspects of life situation of the members of analyzed households. It comes out that significant part of different social transfers goes to relatively rich households, and some of them (housing allowances, disability benefits and social exclusion transfers) seem to reach not only those, that really need them most.
Subjective judgment of the prosperity in Poland does not become better despite a constant economic growth. CBOS (Centre of Public Opinion Research) researches show that for Polish people (97%) health is the most essential matter and that 75% persons are dissatisfied with the health service activity. Even only these numbers let observe the lack of the public prosperity optimization in Poland. Public utility services are personal, so they affect directly a feeling of the well-being. Undoubtedly, the quality of the services mentioned affects positively or negatively the prosperity of the whole population. A possibility of a public utilities evaluation in five dimensions has been shown in this paper: (1) in a professional dimension, i.e. efficiency; (2) in an economical dimension, i.e. productivity; (3) in a process-wise dimension, i.e. TQM; (4) in a personal dimension, i.e. consumer satisfaction; and (5) in a social dimension, i.e. public prosperity improvement.
Content available FOOD DEMAND IN THE YEARS 2004-2007
Food market is a specific market segment which is very sensitive to the influence of different factors, both economical and environmental ones. The article's thesis is that the factor leading and organizing the market should be the demand, the development of which is closely connected to the general macro-economic situation in the economy. The purpose of the years 2004-2006. Focusing on some basic determinants of this growth, i.e. GDP, global personal income of the population, household income and food prices, the authoress discussed the influence of this factor on the amount of expenditures and quantitative food consumption in the period mentioned, and indicated the directions of food demand expected in 2007.
The paper deals with income of Czech households and their mutual differences in income among municipality types. The data in the appropriate classification were taken from the SILC sample of 2007 till 2010. Net annual monetary household income in CZK equalized by the number of consumer units as defined by the EUROSTAT was selected as the income measure. Regarding the income level, a significant difference was found between the capital city and other municipalities each year. Head count ratio oscillates around 6% and poverty gap ratio around 20%. The probability of escaping from the group with the lowest incomes grows from 42% in two year period to 80% in four year period. Permanent poor households consist mainly of unemployed and retired. These households are characterized by lower education and three quarters of their income depended on social income. Possibilities of increase of income were limited especially for households of retired people.
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