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EN
This article attempts to the present the most important results of an analysis of Polish and Russian exponents of adnumerative approximation (e.g. Pol. 'okolo', 'przeszlo'; Rus. 'primerno', 'bolee', etc.). Approximation is defined here as a mechanism of numeric attribution, based on designating a segment in a series of numbers, instead of designating one particular point. This definition encompasses several different ways to designate a segment. All of those ways have separate exponents in Polish and Russian. Analysis indicates that exponents of the same sense can differ in terms of connectivity, semantics and stylistics. These differences should be taken into consideration while establishing Polish and Russian translational equivalents.
Slavica Slovaca
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2020
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tom 55
|
nr 2
153 - 170
EN
The summarising study provides the most comprehensive overview of works dealing with the lexicographical depiction of neologisms in Polish in the second half of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century. In the context of neographic works, the study analyses dictionaries of neologisms and neologisms in general explanatory dictionaries. As to the particular dictionaries of neologisms, it focuses mainly on the context of compiling a dictionary, the characteristics and the extent of the material base, the definition of excerption resources, the description of the concept of a dictionary and the construction of an entry (including examples). Within the category of explanatory dictionaries, it defines especially the degree to which new lexicon is taken into account in the context of the period they reflect and the excerption resources. It also refers to a method of processing that has or has not enabled to identify neologisms.
3
Content available remote O nieprzetłumaczalności gier komunikacyjnych. Studium przypadku
100%
EN
Translation/interpretation processes go beyond the level of individual lexical (word) units. The concept of translatability/interpretability may be applied also to the more sophisticated text elements, defined in this paper as schemes of perceiving reality, available and expected by the originator and the addressee of a message. They may be effectively interpreted in terms of communication games. The paper contains a case study of an (un)translatability of a Polish example text into a non-Polish (Japanese) reality, with reference to communication games.
Slavica Slovaca
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2020
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tom 55
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nr 1
25 - 30
EN
This article pertains to the information about the religious situation and church unions in Trans-Carpathian area. The analysis of sources shows almost overall lack of interest in these matters in historical and religious literature in the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita). It is an attempt to explain the reasons why the area of Trans-Carpathia does not interest Polish and Ruthenia polemical and historical writings in the 17th – 18th century.
5
Content available remote Związki toponimii Ziemi Kłodzkiej z językiem i historią Czech
88%
Bohemistyka
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2014
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tom 14
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nr 1
48 - 63
EN
In the article the author presents a new aspect at science at the toponym of the Klodzko as the cultural heritage of the Czech. In the post-war historical studies of Polish science was defense of the land Klodzko as land belonging to the Polish. A careful analysis of place-names in comparative context, based on the materials Czech, show clearly strong relationships the region with the history and culture of the Czech Republic.
6
Content available remote Polskie gry honoryfikatywne. Czego nie widać?
88%
EN
It seems a common conviction that contemporary Polish honorifics are subject to oversimplification. The process is usually recognized in terms of switching from the situation of a choice between the T/V forms to abandoning the choice in favour of plain T forms. Yet, the phenomenon seems more complex. This paper raises the issue of the invisible, though significant consequences of contemporary honorific decisions in Polish.
EN
My observations concern on linguistic fashion and the accompanying phenomenon, which is snobbery, in the context of changes within the lexical system of Slovak and Polish languages after 1989, when the socio-political breakthrough and the fall of the communist dictatorship in former Czechoslovakia took place. Linguistic fashion, although ephemeral, caused significant shifts and changes in both the verbal and semantic structure of the language. Similar processes and tendencies characterized the language situation in Poland and Slovakia: the tendency to intellectualization and terminologisation, democratization and determinologisation, and above all the internationalization of the Slovak and Polish lexical system.
Bohemistyka
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2015
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tom 15
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nr 4
355 - 365
EN
The authoress analyzes semantic changes of lexemes love and mercy and grace on the basis of Czech and Polish language. She draws attention to the homonymy of forms in the contemporary Polish. The author refers to the etymological dictionaries and historical texts, documenting functioning of such meaning of those words.
EN
This article examines the murder of a Polish immigrant in New Britain, Connecticut in January 2006 by a young Puerto Rican woman. While newspaper accounts and websites describe the murder as a random act, the use of ethnic slurs and characterization of the victim and perpetrator by their ethnic identities insinuate the murder was a result of conflict between Poles and Puerto Ricans. In this article, I suggest a counter narrative, one that focuses on the socio-economic conditions in the neighborhood where the murder took place. Using census tract data, I show that the Poles and Puerto Ricans were living together in a space of concentrated poverty related to high unemployment, low educational attainment, and high rates of poverty, social conditions that are related to higher rates of crime, delinquency, substance abuse, and violence.
EN
Speech-act adverbs constitute one of the categories of epistemic expressions. There is considerabl terminological confusion regarding epistemic adverbs, speech-act adverbs included. The present study uses the classification proposed by Simon-Vandenbergen and Aijmer (2007), who define speech-act adverbs as those which refer to speech acts which could potentially be used to support the speaker’s opinion or raise voices against his/her point of view, e.g. admittedly, arguably, indisputably, unarguably, unquestionably, undeniably. The aim of this study is to identify Polish equivalents of such adverbs, and analyze the cross-cultural significance of the differences between the ranges and uses of speech-act adverbs in the two languages.
EN
The use of masculine gender, which is a characteristic system phenomenon for all three languages under discussion – Slovak, Polish and Bulgarian – is firmly anchored in the language awareness of its carriers. Requests calling for revision of this language standard that are vigorously raised especially in the Polish language environment are not, with some exceptions, generally accepted. Despite the fact that all three languages dispose of similar mechanisms of word formation and multiple morphological means to form feminine names next to their masculine counterparts, Polish and to a lesser extent Bulgarian apply a category of inflection specifically. Unlike Slovak language, a feminine correlate can be derived automatically from nearly each living noun of masculine gender, masculinization – i.e. using masculine nouns in a deputizing function to mark women – is characteristic for Polish and Bulgarian languages. Generally it can be said for both languages that on one hand there are word formation possibilities that language system has to offer, as well as democratization of language and creation potential, on the other hand there is a well-established linguistic tradition and an absence of categorical rules determining gender in naming of professions, functions, titles and various activities depending on the person’s gender. These trends cause tension in the formation or non-formation of feminine forms and their use in both languages, as well as in their lexicographic processing, where searching for an adequate solution is necessary.
EN
In biomedical engineering, both in the Polish- and French-speaking world, numerous scientific papers are published every year: articles in specialist periodicals, doctoral theses, monographs, academic textbooks, etc. Even a perfunctory analysis of titles and names of authors indicates that these are not translations. At the same time, specialists constantly draw on works written in English. They also refer to them in their publications, thus doing the work of translators (usually unconsciously). The aim of the article is to show how specialists refer to foreign-language works and what linguistic means they use when quoting research results described in a foreign language.
EN
Compared to other Polish emigrant cohorts, the broadly understood Solidarity emigration to the USA and Canada of the early 1980s occupies a distinctive place. Their literary output produced for the most part in English came quickly and entered the mainstream book market already at the turn of the century. Even though their fiction deployed fairly typical themes of dislocation, emigrant experience and construction of immigrant identity in the receiving country, its uniqueness rests in the two-fold vision of two very closely related generations: the first generation emigrants who left Poland as adults, as well as their children, classified as the generation 1.5, who experienced growing up in two countries. In their semi autobiographical fiction, writers representing the older generation such as Eva Stachniak and Czesław Karkowski, devote much of their work to justifying the decision to emigrate and attempt to position their successful characters within the narrative of the American dream. In contrast, younger generation authors such as Karolina Waclawiak and Dagmara Dominczyk, construct a much darker vision of the fragmented immigrant identity that leaves their fictional characters psychologically fragile. In their struggle, they identify the cause of this suffering in their parents’ choice to leave the home country.
EN
Presented examples clearly show that the linguistic image of the world is of great importance when it comes to animal names. Of the many fundamental differences between the analysed languages, we come to the conclusion that the influence on the name often has a relationship between the users of that language to the animal (as it was with the name of the Tibetan bears or the general bears that people were afraid of and thus formed a taboo); Very often the naming also affects the place of the animal (as can be seen with the name of the hippopotamus); It can also be forgotten about the appearance of the animal itself (an example is a small panda or a large pike). The processing of Polish-Czech-English names can undoubtedly be an interesting basis for further research on this issue.
EN
The author focuses on biblical animals as heroes of the Polish chivalry romances of the 16th century. They play an important role in the lives of the protagonists and symbolize the main qualities of an ideal knight: courage, bravery and piety. The 16th-century Polish writers paid attention not only to the animals' appearance, but especially to their attitudes towards humans. Hence they can fall into two categories: the creatures associated with God and those representing evil. Such differentiation has its origins in the Bible. The animal heroes appearing in the texts under discussion include brave horses, terrifying dragons, a lion and hind who look after people, a boar that drags heroes into the gutter, a self-centred monkey, dogs saving human life or the so-called monstra biformia consisting of different members of other creatures' bodies.
EN
This article examines albums from the Romantic period – scrapbooks containing captions autographs, drawings, and personal memorabilia – both as artefacts, and as polysemic, heterogeneous “texts” of early nineteenth-century Russian and Polish culture. Albums flourished in the age of Romanticism because of their location in the nexus of literature and fine arts, social life and domesticity, high and low culture. Flexible and open-ended, albums facilitated discourse about memory, national identity, and authorship. The history of the album shows it to have originated in ancient Rome, where it was called the album amicorum, and it was introduced into Slavic culture via the German Stammbuch as early as the sixteenth century. After an introductory presentation of the album as a cultural object, the article focuses on the album’s textual structure: form, multifarious content, and the internal languages that govern its arrangement and decoding. Thus the album is a cultural text in two senses: it is a collection that encapsulates philosophical, sociopolitical, and the aesthetic concerns of Romanticism, but it is also a physical verbal/pictorial text that also frequently approximates a literary work, a book, or an art object.
17
Content available remote Kategorie honorativu v českých konjugačních paradigmatech
63%
EN
In Czech, as in many other languages, second person plural forms are used as a means of formal address. As in French, and unlike in Russian, a finite verb predicated of the pronoun 'vy' in this usage agrees with its subject in plural, as expected, while participles and predicative adjectives are singular. It is argued that this pattern of hybrid agreement, present both within analytical verb forms and syntactic constructions and different from regular plural and singular, justifies the introduction of the morphological category of honorific in Czech. As a result, an account of analytical verb forms cannot be complete without providing an explicit description of the forms of second person formal address. Existing Czech grammar reference books are not quite satisfactory in this respect; furthermore they implicitly presuppose the application of rules concerning grammatical gender. We offer a solution to the issue of the adequate presentation of analytical verbal morphology paradigms, including formal address, along the lines of a Polish verbal morphology handbook.
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