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1
Content available remote Kvantitativní a kvalitativní přístupy ve výzkumu životních drah
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EN
Despite the growing number of statistical analyses of life-history data and a long tradition of biographical research, there is often no communication between these two streams of life-course research. It is possible to examine the life course quantitatively through life histories, which may be used to model synthetic biographies in order to reveal patterns in the timing and sequencing of life events, the durations of states between them, and the causal links between them. It is also possible to examine the life course qualitatively through life stories, e.g. biographical narratives, which reflect how persons understand, experience and attach meaning to events and states in their life. Through a quantitative analysis of life-history data we can describe and explain the morphology of particular events in the observed population, while a qualitative analysis of biographical narratives provides insight into people’s decision-making, perceptions of their options, and how they attach meanings to and experience events. This article summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches, explains in which sense they are connected or differentiated from each other, what data and analyses each perspective may utilize, and briefly introduces one type of mixed methods life course research that utilizes the complementarity of both approaches.
EN
This article draws on qualitative data of U.S. high school students considering their place in the adult world; the purpose is to investigate Jeffrey Arnett’s (2000) concept of “emerging adulthood” as a new stage of life course. Drawing on interviews and observational data collected around the time when Arnett’s notion of emerging adulthood started to take hold, I use intersectional interpretive lens in order to highlight how race and gender construct emerging adulthood as high school students move out of adolescence. I consider Arnett’s thesis twofold. First, when emerging adulthood is examined intersectionally, young people reveal that – rather than being distinct periods that can simply be prolonged, delayed, or even reached – life stages are fluid and constantly in flux. Second, since efforts to mitigate against uncertain futures characterizes the Millennial generation, I argue that the process of guarding against uncertainty reorders, questions or reconfigures the characteristics and stages that conventionally serve as markers of life course. I conclude that the identity exploration, indecision, and insecurity associated with emerging adulthood can also be understood as related to how the youth reveal and reshape the life course intersectionally.
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Content available remote Súčasné výzvy pre psychologické skúmanie dôchodku
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EN
The aim of this theoretical review is to outline how the levels of retirement (retirement as an institution, life stage and personal experience) go together and what it means for psychological retirement research. The first section summarizes the brief history of the retirement institution. The second part describes the situation when the baby boomers generation comes into retirement age. In this generation, changes in life cycle patterns, such as work or parental delays, may be observed, but in particular, it is the introduction of a third phase of life that changes the meaning of a traditionally understood retirement. The third part of the paper presents theories on which psychological retirement research is based (role theory, continuity theory, the life course perspective and the resource-based dynamic model). Characterized are the topics that are examined most (retirement as decision making, late career development and adjustment). The author argues that the psychological theory of retirement can not be constructed, as the retirement is not a psychological phenomenon. This, however, does not diminish the potential of the psychological knowledge of this life stage in the present historical period. Therefore, the fourth and fifth parts of the paper address two themes where “old” notions and “new” external retirement options are encountered: retirement transition and retirement adjustment. It points to the fragmentation and diversity of current retirement transition and its implications for research. The problem of the persistence of the (low) retirement age is analyzed. When examining retirement adjustment, the sequence of this process and the need to separate adjustment and retirement life satisfaction indicators are highlighted. In conclusion, the author states that psychological retirement research faces the challenge of reflecting societal changes and examining their consequences for the psychological functioning and well-being of individuals.
SK
Cieľom tohto teoretického prehľadu bolo načrtnúť, ako sa úrovne dôchodku (dôchodok ako inštitút, fáza života a prežívanie) prelínajú a čo to znamená pre psychologický výskum dôchodku. Prvá časť uvádza stručnú históriu inštitútu dôchodku. Druhá časť charakterizuje situácie, keď do dôchodkového veku nastupuje generácia „baby boomers“. V tejto generácii možno pozorovať zmeny vo vzorcoch životného cyklu, napríklad oneskorenie nástupu do zamestnania alebo rodičovstva, ale najmä je to uvedenie tretej fázy života, ktorá mení význam tradične chápaného dôchodku. Tretia časť príspevku uvádza teórie, z ktorých doterajšie psychologické skúmanie dôchodku vychádza (teória rolí, teória kontinuity, koncepcia celoživotného vývinu a dynamický model dostupnosti zdrojov). Uvedené sú témy, ktoré sú skúmané najviac (dôchodok ako rozhodovanie, rozvoja neskorej kariéry a adaptácia). Autorka sa prikláňa k názoru, že psychologickú teóriu dôchodku nemožno konštruovať, keďže dôchodok nie je psychologický jav. To však neznižuje možnosti prínosu psychologického poznania tejto životnej fázy v súčasnej historickej dobe. Štvrtá a piata časť príspevku sa preto venujú dvom oblastiam, v ktorých sa stretávajú „staré“ predstavy a „nové“ vonkajšie možnosti dôchodku: prechod do dôchodku a adaptácia na dôchodok. Poukazuje na fragmentárnosť a rozmanitosť súčasných prechodov do dôchodku a ich implikácie pre výskum. Analyzovaný je problém pretrvávania (nízkej) vekovej hranice dôchodku. V skúmaní adaptácie na dôchodok je zdôraznená postupnosť tohto procesu a potreba oddeliť indikátory adaptácie a životnej spokojnosti na dôchodku. Na záver autorka uvádza, že psychologické skúmanie dôchodku stojí pred výzvou reflektovať spoločenské zmeny a skúmať ich dôsledky na psychologické fungovanie a pohodu jednotlivcov.
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Content available remote Order and timing of home ownership and fertility decisions in Australia
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The birth of a child and transition into home ownership are markers of progression along a life course. Research shows that pathways to home ownership have become more diverse and deviate from the traditional pathway which was characterised by marriage followed by the birth of a child before entering home ownership. This study investigates the timing and order of the two interrelated events of birth of a child and the transition to home ownership in Australia. Using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia panel survey, we apply a multi-process event history analysis for describing the timing of each event following the formation of a cohabiting relationship. The results suggest that the likelihood of birth increases with prior home ownership attainment but as time passes following the purchase of a home, the likelihood of birth decreases, similarly, the likelihood of home ownership attainment decreased with time following birth.
EN
Vietnamese immigrant families in the Czech Republic often recruit Czech women to look after their children. Seen in the context of the dominant scholarship, this is a quite unique case in the field of care work where the employers are immigrants, while the employees are women of the host country. Drawing upon fifteen in-depth interviews with Czech nannies, this article analyses the motivations to become a nanny in a Vietnamese family. It employs the perspective of the life course in order to understand what changes in women’s biographies lie behind these decisions. The author focuses on the transitions in nannies’ life cycles at the crossroads of three aspects of their biographies: the family caregiving role, position in the labour market and the welfare state, and the meaning of paid caregiving. By looking at how women experience and attach meaning to transitions and phases in their life, which lead them to take a gendered job as a nanny, the author sheds light on the dynamics of the complex processes (taking place in families, the labour market, or the welfare state) that constitute these changes. This article—through the analysis of the motivations to become nannies—illuminates the broader issues of how gendered biographies are shaped under particular socio-economic and historical conditions, as well as by particular cultural expectations of caregiving.
EN
This article questions the relevance of the notion of generation to describe the cohort who lives in Beijing and who was born in the 1980s and early 1990s, after the implementation of the reforms and opening-up policy in China. The analysis relies on 627 questionnaires collected in Beijing in 2010. The sample was stratified by age and sex, and, based on quotas; it was split into five age groups (18-26 year-olds, 33-41 year-olds, 48-56 year-olds, 63-71 year-olds and 78-86 year-olds). The respondents were questioned on their perception of turning points and socio-historical changes that occurred during their lifetime. After having analysed the data in a comparative perspective, we came to conclusion that the word generation is suitable to describe the young people from Beijing born in the 1980s and early 1990s not only because they do share autobiographical and collective historical memories, but also because these memories have by and large taken place between their adolescence and entry into adulthood (supporting the hypothesis of the existence of a reminiscence bump).
PL
Współczesne zmiany demograficzne oraz starzenie się społeczeństw skłaniają do poszu-kiwania odpowiedzi na pytanie, w jaki sposób starość jako faza życia jest kształtowana przez wcześniejsze wydarzenia, doświadczenia i zachowania. Artykuł stanowi propozycję zastosowania perspektywy cyklu życia (ang. life course perspective) w badaniach nad polityką społeczną i pracą socjalną, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem polityki społecznej wobec starzenia się ludności. Autorka dokonuje przeglądu potencjalnych obszarów poli-tyki społecznej (takich jak polityka rynku pracy, polityka rodzinna, polityka zdrowotna, opieka długoterminowa), w których zastosowanie perspektywy cyklu życia może przynieść korzystne rezultaty w postaci wyodrębnienia instrumentów proaktywnych i prewencyjnych. Dominującą perspektywą teoretyczną jest nowy instytucjonalizm. Autorka dokonuje oceny zjawiska instytucjonalizacji i deinstytucjonalizacji cyklu życia oraz podkreśla korzyści wynikające z integracji perspektyw łączących politykę społeczną i nowoczesne rozwiązania instytucjonalne z gerontologią, psychologią, pedagogiką i medycyną wieku dojrzałego.
EN
Contemporary demographic changes and the ageing of populations pose the question on how old age, as a stage of life, is shaped by preceding events, experiences and behaviors. This article proposes to use the life course perspective in research on social policy and social work, with a specific focus on ageing policies. It reviews selected areas of social policy (such as labor market policy, social security policy, health policy, family policy, edu- cation policy, long-term care and others), in which the use of the life course perspective may bring positive effects, such as establishing pro-active and preventive policy instru- ments. The dominant theoretical perspective used in the research is a new institutionalism and, in particular, its sociological and normative streams. The article elaborates the pro- cess of life-course institutionalization and deinstitutionalization and emphasizes benefits resulting from integrating the process of policy-making and new institutional solutions with the input of gerontology, psychology, pedagogy and adult medicine.
EN
In this article I examine the role of social class for poverty transitions. Social class has traditionally been an important predictor of social inequalities, but it is sometimes argued that it has lost its relevance for explaining precariousness and economic risk in contemporary societies. This paper reviews the debate regarding the relevance of social class, the literature on life course dynamics as well as the tensions and links between the social stratification framework and the dynamic perspective on economic risk. In the empirical partI assess the importance of life events as predictors of poverty in combination with social stratification variables. The results show that the risk of experiencing poverty triggering life events is not equally spread across populations, but rather varies across welfare states and linked to social class, gender and education level. Secondly, random effects discrete-time hazard models in thirteen European countries show the relative importance of life course events and social stratification determinants as predictors of poverty entry.
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EN
In life course studies five principles guide social science researchers: (1) the principle of human development and aging, (2) the principle of human agency, (3) the principle of historical time and space, (4) the principle of timing, and (5) the principle of linked lives. We propose a sixth principle: life course tempo explicitly depends on other life course principles especially the external principles of (2), (3), and (5). Tempo changes may have sociological and psychological consequences. To demonstrate the sixth principle at work, we analyze a sample of the peasant letters both to and from America in Thomas and Znaniecki’s The Polish Peasant in Europe and America, the pioneer life history study of Polish immigrants in early 20th century. Two types of tempo change in transition into first marriage are evident in the letters, waiting/postponement and haste, which resulted from changed historical time and space and reorganized human agency of the immigrants. Thus, this research is inspired by Thomas and Znaniecki’s work on the Polish peasant and Znaniecki’s methodology and in turn uses the Polish peasant letters as data.
EN
This article examines the relation between well-being and fertility intentions in Europe and addresses three main research questions: Does overall well-being infl uence fertility intentions? What kind of well-being factors are more important in the determination of fertility intentions (individual-level subjective ones vs. individual-level objective ones vs. country-level ones)? Does the role of specifi c well-being variables change over the course of the life course, i.e. as age and parity increase? In accordance with the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991), fertility intentions are studied as important predictors of actual fertility behaviour. And in line with established studies, a broad approach is taken towards the concept of well-being. The analysis is theoretically grounded in the framework of methodological individualism (i.e. micro-macro linkages). Use is made of data on women aged 20-39 in 27 countries, which were taken from the ‘Family, work and well-being’ module in the 5th round (2010) of the European Social Survey. The analysis of a comparable European population sample is made possible by taking account of both unit and item non-responses, and correcting for them. Our analysis shows overall positive but small correlations between well-being and fertility intentions in all countries: the higher the level of well-being, the higher the intended fertility, although the strength of the correlation differs between countries. Also, overall, individual-level objective well-being factors, such as level of education and employment status, have a larger impact on fertility intentions than individual-level subjective well-being factors and country-level well-being factors regarding human development, gender inequality and region. Changes in the effects of these well-being factors are found depending on the stage of the life course: as parity and age increase, the importance of country-level well-being effects increases. This shows that family-friendly country policies targeted to these groups can have positive effects on fertility.
EN
The article provides a synthetic description and evaluation of social policy run in Poland, with the post-war baby boom as a beneficiary. In the analysis, the author merged two research perspectives: the life cycle and the life course. The baby boom was defined as cohorts born in the years 1948-1959. The analysis period for the social policy and its influence on particular life phases of the studied generation spans the years 1948-2018. The author demonstrated that unifying the life course of the peak cohorts was fostered by the uptake of the free-of-charge social services (mostly in education and healthcare) and the financial social benefits. The main criteria that differentiate their social biography are: the place of residence (cities – villages), sex, year of birth, education level and being subject to industry prerogatives.
PL
W artykule dokonano syntetycznego opisu i oceny prowadzonej w Polsce polityki społecznej, której beneficjentem był powojenny wyż demograficzny. W analizie autorka połączyła dwie perspektywy badawcze: cyklu życia i biegu życia. Baby boom został zdefiniowany jako kohorty urodzone w latach 1948-1959. Okres analizy polityki społecznej i jej wpływu na poszczególne fazy życia badanego pokolenia obejmuje lata 1948-2018. Autorka wykazała, że ujednolicaniu biegu życia wyżowych kohort sprzyjało upowszechnienie nieodpłatnych usług społecznych (głównie edukacyjnych i zdrowotnych) oraz pieniężnych świadczeń społecznych. Głównymi czynnikami różnicującymi ich socjalną biografię są: miejsce zamieszkania (miasto – wieś), płeć, rok urodzenia, poziom wykształcenia i podleganie przywilejom branżowym.
EN
The aim of this article is to reflect on the concept of youth in the context of changes in life course patterns. The extension of the process of transition to adulthood has resulted in the conceptualisation of a new phase in the life course – youth – or emerging adulthood. Using autobiographical in-depth interviews with young adults born in the early 1980s, the author discusses ways of defining youth. How do young people understand, experience and position it in relation to adulthood? The researched boom generation of the 1980s in Poland made a life course revolution, prolonging the transition to adulthood and creating new life course patterns. As the analyses show, youth is a significant period or biographical moment for some of the respondents, while at the same time it remains a value or lifestyle not necessarily related to age.
PL
Celem tego artykułu jest refleksja nad koncepcją młodości z perspektywy przemian przebiegu życia. Wydłużanie się procesu wchodzenia w dorosłość skutkowało wyłonieniem w przebiegu życia nowej fazy – młodości – czy też wyłaniającej się dorosłości (emerging adulthood). Na podstawie autobiograficznych wywiadów pogłębionych z młodymi dorosłymi urodzonymi na początku lat 80., ukazane zostaną sposoby definiowania młodości. Jak jest ona przez nich rozumiana, przeżywana i pozycjonowana w stosunku do dorosłości? Badane pokolenie wyżu demograficznego lat 80. w Polsce dokonało swoistej rewolucji w przebiegu życia, wydłużając wchodzenie w dorosłość i tworząc nowe wzory przebiegu życia. Jak pokazują analizy, młodość dla części osób badanych staje się znaczącym okresem czy momentem biograficznym, równocześnie pozostaje wartością czy stylem życia niekoniecznie związanym z wiekiem.
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Content available Podmiotowość dziecka w rodzinie
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PL
W epoce późnej nowoczesności zmienia się miejsce oraz rola dziecka i dzieciństwa w społeczeństwie. Tradycyjne ujęcia tej problematyki stoją w obliczu podejść nowych. Przykładem podejścia mało znanego w naszym kraju jest koncepcja niemieckiego socjologa Manfreda Liebela. Badacz ten kładzie nacisk na samostanowienie i prawo do podmiotowości dziecka. Jego głównym przedmiotem zainteresowań była praca dzieci, poszukiwanie różnych źródeł utrzymania przez dzieci i wspieranie własnej rodziny. Koncepcja podmiotowości wysunięta przez Liebela kontrastuje z potocznymi wyobrażeniami na temat pracy dzieci i tzw. dzieci ulicy, ponieważ większość materiału pochodziła z badań wśród dzieci ubogich rodzin mieszkających w metropoliach Ameryki Łacińskiej. W naszym artykule wykorzystujemy badania przeprowadzone ostatnio, a dokładnie w okresie od lutego 2011 do września 2012 r. w całym regionie Małopolski, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Krakowa, wśród wychowanków instytucji pomocowych i uczniów szkół podstawowych oraz gimnazjów, w wieku od 10. do 15. roku życia. Badania były prowadzone za pomocą analizy konwersacyjnej. Objęły bardzo dużą liczbę dzieci, prawie tysiąc dziewczynek i chłopców. W niniejszym tekście prezentujemy najważniejsze wyniki badań podmiotowości dzieci oraz przedstawiamy wnioski dotyczące relacji dzieci–dorośli w sferze prywatnej i publicznej.
EN
"In the era of late modernity the place of the child and childhood in society is changing. Traditional approaches are facing the new ones. An example of a little-known in our country’s approach is the concept of the German sociologist Manfred Liebel. This researcher focuses on the right to self-determination and empowerment of the child. His major work was the work of children, searching for different sources of income to support their own families. The concept of subjectivity Liebel contrasts with popular ideas on child labor and so-called street children, because most of the material came from studies of children of poor families living in metropolitan areas of Latin America. In this paper we present the research conducted recently, in the period from February 2011 to September 2012 in the region of Malopolska, with particular emphasis on Krakow, among children assisted by social welfare institutions and pupils in primary and secondary school, aged from 10 to 15. We employed a conversational analysis in the study. It encompassed a thousand girls and boys. Herein, we present the main results of the research as well as findings on the relationship between children and adults in the context of social policy.
EN
This article compares the duration of and consequences for employment interruptions for mothers with distinct educational qualifications in cross-national perspective. We analyze the duration of mothers’ employment interruption and the relative quality of the job after childbirth, for high and low qualified mothers in Germany, Sweden, and the United States. Analyses are based on harmonized national longitudinal data sets (GLHS-West, NLSY, LNU), which allow us to study mothers’ careers over the past 30–35 years. We apply event-history analysis to study how long mothers with distinct educational levels interrupt employment after childbirth, and how the patterns of return to work differ with respect to mothers’ educational level. In all three countries the highly educated display a greater labor market attachment. In the US, almost half of the mothers with some college background, compared to only a quarter of high-school dropouts stay employed continuously after childbirth. In Sweden, basically all mothers take time-out for at least half a year. In Germany, 25% of mothers with university entrance qualification do not claim parental leave. In Germany and Sweden consequences of leave extensions seem to operate independent of mothers’ educational levels. In the U.S. medium and highly educated mothers tend to return more slowly after the enactment of the FMLA.
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Content available remote Čtvrtý věk jako specifické pole pro vyjádření aktérství
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EN
The concept of the fourth age has until recently been an overlooked topic in social gerontology, which in past decades has focused more closely on the third age. This article provides an overview of commonly applied definitions of the fourth age. It focuses on concepts that do not view the fourth age as an unavoidable stage in life but rather as a stage in which the shared vulnerabilities and responsibilities for care that some older adults may experience need to be recognised. The article devotes a more in-depth discussion to the issue of agency in the fourth age, the possibilities for the existence of agency, and forms of agency. It challenges the idea that the fourth age is a stage in life without agency and argues that agency can be identified through its relational definitions. It also highlights the problems of understanding independence in the context of advanced old age. The article draws attention to the risk of greater polarisation in old age that lies in the positive value ascribed in current social gerontology to the dominant concept of the third age and in associating the negative stereotypes of old age with just the fourth age. The conclusion highlights the problems surrounding the possibility of active ageing in the fourth age.
EN
In this paper, I would like to analyse historical process of understanding the concept of “educational biography”, as a social form of self-construction and self-projection arising from a particular historical and social context . Then, by using three perspectives, I would like to discuss the current conditions relating to biographical learning and introduce the strange phenomenon of “biographicity”. Finally, I would like to use two empirical studies to show, in an exemplary manner, how we need to consider significant cultural differences when talking about biographies. I will conclude with a proposal for research with a comparative perspective.
PL
W tym artykule analizuję historyczny proces rozumienia pojęcia „biografii edukacyjnej” jako społecznej formy konstruowania i projektowania siebie, wynikającej z konkretnego kontekstu historycznego i społecznego. Następnie, korzystając z trzech perspektyw, omawiam obecne warunki do biograficznego uczenia się i wprowadzam dziwne zjawisko „biograficzności”. W końcu, na podstawie dwóch empirycznych badań, wskazuję na przykładach konieczność wzięcia pod uwagę różnic kulturowych podczas rozmowy o biografiach. Artykuł kończę propozycją badania z perspektywy komparatywnej.
PL
Od lat 80. XX wieku obserwujemy proces włączania kwestii równości płci do głównego nurtu polityk publicznych, co widoczne jest w dokumentach i strategiach ONZ oraz polityce Unii Europejskiej. Równość płci staje się również ważnym zagadnieniem w polskiej polityce społecznej. Podejście równościowe znajduje odzwierciedlenie w prawodawstwie i politykach mających na celu przeciwdziałanie dyskryminacji i zapewnienie równego traktowania kobiet i mężczyzn. Celem artykułu jest spojrzenie na realizację polityk równości płci w obszarach dotyczących edukacji, rodziny, rynku pracy i zabezpieczeń emerytalnych. Tekst bazuje na przeprowadzonych badaniach jakościowych (analiza polityk oraz 10 zogniskowanych wywiadów grupowych z różnorodnymi grupami, także ze względu na wiek) dotyczących doświadczeń równości płci lub jej braku w przebiegu życia. Odwołując się do perspektywy przebiegu życia, próbujemy dokonać oceny, czy i na ile istniejące polityki społeczne odpowiadają potrzebom kobiet i mężczyzn w zakresie równości płci.
EN
Since the 1980s one can observe a process of integrating gender equality policies into the mainstream of social policies, which is evident in the documents and strategies of the United Nations and European Union. Gender equality is also becoming an important perspective when it comes to Polish social policy. This approach is reflected in the legal acts and policies aimed at combating discrimination and ensuring the equal treatment of men and women. This article analyses the implementation of gender equality policies in the areas of education, family life, the labour market and the pension system. It is based on data stemming from a qualitative study (policy analysis and ten focus group interviews with various groups) concerning experiences linked to gender in/ equality in different phases of life. By referring to the life course perspective, we attempt to assess whether and how existing social policies meet the needs of women and men considered from the gender equality perspective.
RU
На основе данных из панельного обследования SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe), расширенного в третьем раунде панеля SHARELIFE было представлено, что события прошлого имеют значение для формирования текущего состояния здоровья и экономического положения лиц в возрасте не менее 50 лет проживающих в Европе. Самооценка состояния здоровья и сила рукопожатия значительно отличалась в зависимости от состояния здоровья и экономического статуса в детстве, опыта полученного в периодах плохого здоровья и медицинской помощи в зрелом возрасте. Для лиц с самым низким экономическим статусом в детстве, стратификация не изменилась и позже. Плохое или просто удовлетворительное здоровье в детстве было связано с низкими доходами домашнего хозяйства позже, чего не наблюдалось в периодах плохого здоровья в зрелом возрасте.
PL
Na podstawie danych z badania panelowego SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe), rozszerzonego w trzeciej rundzie panelu SHARELIFE pokazano, że wydarzenia z przeszłości mają znaczenie dla kształtowania się bieżącej sytuacji zdrowotnej i ekonomicznej osób w wieku co najmniej 50 lat żyjących w Europie. Samoocena stanu zdrowia i siła uścisku dłoni istotnie się różniła w zależności od stanu zdrowia i statusu ekonomicznego w dzieciństwie, doświadczenia zdobytego w okresach pogorszenia zdrowia i opieki medycznej w wieku dorosłym. W przypadku osób o najniższym statusie ekonomicznym w dzieciństwie, stratyfikacja nie zmieniła się w wieku późniejszym. Złe lub tylko zadowalające zdrowie w dzieciństwie wiązało się z niskimi dochodami gospodarstwa domowego w wieku późniejszym, czego nie obserwowano w okresach pogorszenia się zdrowia w wieku dorosłym.
EN
Data from the SHARE panel (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe), expanded in the third round SHARELIFE panel, show that the events of the past are important for the development of the current situation and the economic health of living in Europe people aged at least 50 years. Self-assessment of health status and handshake power differ significantly depending on the health and economic status in childhood, the experience gained during periods of ill and medical care in adulthood. For those with the lowest economic status in childhood, stratification has not changed later in life. Bad or just satisfactory health in childhood was associated with low household income in later life. This was not observed in periods of deterioration in health in adulthood.
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