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EN
Good mental health in childhood and adolescence is a prerequisite for optimal development, effective learning, build satisfying relationships with people, taking care of one’s own physical health, and self-management in adult life. Psychological well-being means life satisfaction and covers various aspects of life: school, family, friends, hobbies, etc. Thus, the status of well-being among students is vital for their psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to identify selected aspects of the mental well-being of students at different stages of education. Study participants included fifty-nine students aged between 12 and 19 years (both males and females). The participants filled out a questionnaire concerning various aspects of life satisfaction and social functioning, designed specifically for the study. The results show that girls are more satisfied from their lives than boys, but they assess their own’s coping competencies lower than boys. Younger students show higher levels of general life satisfaction and better coping skills, although they more often have conflicting relationships with teachers. The results suggest that particular attention should be paid to older students, especially girls.
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Anna Gulczyńska, Aneta Wojciechowska, Sex education of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders in Poland. Interdisciplinary Contexts of Special Pedagogy, no. 24, Poznań 2019. Pp. 155-176. Adam Mickiewicz University Press. ISSN 2300-391X.DOI: https://doi.org/10.14746/ikps.2019.24.09 The aim of this article is to present the results of research into how mothers of individuals with ASD perceive school sex education. The article aims to contribute to the discussion on the need to introduce changes in the Polish education system as far as the area of sexuality is concerned. The study was carried out in two parts, at time intervals. The results were obtained only from mothers, which corresponds with the conclusion that mothers talk about matters of sexuality more often than fathers do and with daughters rather than with sons. The results indicate that mothers want to influence the sex education of their children, at the same time having no knowledge of what topics they are pursuing or can pursue with their child during formal sex education at school (education for living in a family).
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Aggression is defined as the intentional action which causes pain and injury. The actions of an aggressive nature are designed to cause physical or mental harm to another person (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 1997). In contrast, violence is defined as an intentional action that goes beyond social norms and causes mental or physical pain (Pospiszyl, 1999). The article is concentrated on aggressive and violent language among children and adolescents. The term of ”language of aggression” has not been precisely defined yet. The language of aggression occurs the most when negative emotions and intentions are involved in the communication (Majchrzyk, 2002). The language of aggression is not only about using specific bad words but also about the way we speak. The article presents an overview of Polish and foreign literature concerning the issue of the language of aggression in children and adolescents. It shows why do teenagers and children use aggressive language, how is defined term of ”aggressive language” and what specialists can do to prevent such kind of problem.
EN
According to the ecological model, all sexual activity results from experiences gathered during the biologically based process of socialization. Therefore, analysis of the impact that visual impairment has on the psychosexual functioning of adolescents should consider not only the functional aspect but mainly the sociocultural aspect. Specific upbringing and education conditions in childhood and adolescence (e.g.: compulsory schooling in a special center - often in a live-in environment, parental overprotectiveness, lack of or unadapted sexual education curricula, etc.) may hinder learning of typical interpersonal interaction patterns and delay one’s sexual identification process. The limited range of social experiences may result in a low mentalization of the need, and, in consequence, a lack of its stimulation, which manifests itself, for instance, in a lower frequency of autoerotic behaviors among blind adolescent boys as compared to their nondisabled peers. Moreover, a lowered self-esteem and sense of interpersonal attractiveness relating to the lack of acceptance of one’s disability, awareness of being dependent on others, and negative reactions of people around which are based on false beliefs about blind people’s sexuality can also make it difficult to build close relationships and form emotional and sexual bonds. A review of studies on the sexuality of blind and visually impaired adolescents does not allow unambiguous conclusions to be drawn about the course of this group’s development. The data collected are generally descriptive in nature and do not fully reflect the specificity of sexual functioning in the whole population of adolescents with visual impairments as, frequently, the studies were conducted with small samples and did not take into account different types and severity of visual impairment. Also, discrepancies in the findings relating to individual aspects of psychosexual development may be due to differences in instruments used by researchers as well as to the sociocultural nature of the approach to sexuality that is specific to the country where the study was carried out.
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Content available remote Modern Factors of Health and Their Peculiarities for Teenagers
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The work aimed at specifying modern features of civilizational factors influence on the health, revealing peculiarities of young age, establishing reflexion of modern factors of health in methodological approaches to health studying. Changes in understanding health are reflected in its studying methodology. The analysis of sociological research data shows, that the social stress became the main reason of medical-demographic situation deterioration in days of reforms. The mechanism of its influence was the loss of effective labor motivation, social envy, and deterioration of spiritual condition of a society. Material well-being decrease was not a determinative factor. The problem of inequalities in health gets the increasing urgency. It is connected with physical and social living environment; availability of qualitative medical aid; specific features of behavior of people. At a medical aid guarantee, and at teenage age, factors of social living environment, which influence behavior in health sphere by means of stigmatization are especially significant.
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Content available Identity and aggression among adolescents
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EN
Nowadays, there is a lot of research regarding two problems. One of them concerns a shaping of an identity in a period of adolescence and another one refers to aggression among young people. Researchers look for conditions of both phenomena in temperamental traits, personality, family, school, and peer environment specification. In the current research, attention was focused on a relationship between identity processes and entering a role of a perpetrator and a victim of aggression. An experimental group consisted of 167 adolescents aged between 16 and 17 years old. The following measurement scales were used: Mini-DIA (The Mini Direct Indirect Aggression Inventory, Österman, Björkqvist, 2008) and DIDS (The Dimensions of Identity Development Scale, Luyckx et al., 2008). The study’s results suggest a similarity in identity processes among girls and boys and a differentiating gender role in entering a role of a perpetrator and a victim. Moreover, there were identified significant relationships between an intensity of identity processes and experiences of a perpetrator and a victim.
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Content available remote Poczucie sensu życia młodzieży a jej koncepcje przyszłości osobistej
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The needs of individual to find meaning in his own life and to build own future conception are considered as important regulators of youth activity. This is a thesis accepted in psychological literature (Tyszkowa, 1990). Their realization is not only provided a positive transition of a youth to adulthood but also sets the framework for their further development. The article presents the results of research on the relation between sense of meaning in life and personal future conceptions built by modern young people. The results indicate that a relatively strong sense of meaning in life is characteristic for these adolescents, which created the conceptions of life with a high level of structuration.
EN
As we know relatively little about the development of wisdom in youth, the following study was designed to examine whether and how wise functioning would predict coping strategies in adolescents. As layperson’s implicit theories of wisdom suggest that wisdom varies by age, we wanted to see if and how age might correlate with wisdom, and examine the role of age as a mediator between wisdom and coping. Consequently, this article provides some initial evidence indicating that wise thinking, behaving, and age are related to coping strategies. It seems that wise individuals act when confronted with adversity and obstacles, focusing on the benefits that follow from stressful events. At the same time, they try to avoid using responses that are commonly considered less adaptive or immature: denial or substance use. These choices may be related to the equilibrium between knowledge and doubt that is believed to be the core of wisdom. Therefore, being wise lies not in what is known, but rather in the way in which the knowledge is used in everyday life and experienced as time passes by.
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We examined the association between overweight/gender and skipping breakfast among adolescent students in Tehran city using a cross-sectional study and a multistage random sampling method. All educational zones in Tehran city were covered during the educational year of 2000–01. In total, 2321 students aged 11–16 years (1068 male; 1263 female) participated in the study. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was calculated. Overweight, pre-obesity and obesity were defined as BMI ≥ 85th, 85th to 95th, and ≥ 95th percentile of age-sex-specific BMI reference values, respectively. Self-reported frequency of breakfast consumption was categorized as usual/always, often, and rarely/never (5–7, 2–4 and 0–1 times/wk, respectively). Student’s t and Chi-square tests were employed to analyze the data. Statistical inferences were made at α = 0.05. In boys and girls, the mean ± standard deviation of BMI was 19.8 ± 4.0 and 20.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, the 18.8% and 23.1% were overweight, and 7.3% and 8.3% were obese, respectively. There was a significant difference in the frequency of breakfast consumption between obese and normal male students (P < 0.001). Differences between pre-obese and normal, and obese and normal female students were also significant (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). A significant difference was found in the frequency of breakfast consumption between male and female adolescents in all three categories (P < 0.001). These results suggest that obese and female adolescents are more likely to skip breakfast than their normal and male peers and are therefore at higher risk for growth deficits and low educational performance. Preventive/educational programs are urgently needed in this age group.
EN
Introduction. Increased suicide rates, both among adults and adolescents, have been seen in Poland over recent years. Aim. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of self-injury, suicide ideation, plans and attempts in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years. Material and methods. The study encompassed the total number of 6883 individuals aged 13 to 19 years, 69% of them being girls and 31% - boys. All respondents lived in Lubelskie Province. The research was conducted using a questionnaire designed by the authors. Results. In the group composed of 6883 adolescents living in Lublin Province, suicide ideation was reported by 47.65% of the respondents, suicide plans by 32.35%, suicide attempts were carried out by 10% of adolescents and self-injury by 24.91% of the respondents aged 13 to 19 years. Conclusions. The greatest prevalence of suicide ideation, plans and attempts, as well as self-injuries, were recorded in the group of adolescents aged 17. The adolescents living in the urban areas are more likely to inflict self-injury than those living in rural areas. Furthermore, adolescents with suicidal tendencies, e.g. attempting suicide and self-injury, are more prone to alcohol and substance abuse. It needs emphasizing that many adolescents with suicidal tendencies, compared against those who did not carry them out, have past experience of psychological, physical and sexual violence in the family, have been raised by a single parent or in families, where one of the parents abused alcohol.
EN
Interests allow young people to define themselves, encourage the formation of positive elements of their own identity, and give value and importance to their own activities. The issues related to the components of young people’s identities have been a subject of increasing research interest in recent years. As it has been determined, there is a lack of data in Poland regarding the role of educational environments in shaping a positive identity based on the development of young people’s interests. The purpose of the study is to identify the general level of interests among adolescents. Additionally, it is important to determine whether the level of interests is linked to sense of coherence and resilience. The study was carried out on a sample of 635 adolescents of both genders, aged 14-18 years old. The participants were students of lower secondary schools of the Podlaskie Voivodeship. The following research tools were used in the study: Life Orientation Questionnaire (SOC-29), Resilience Scale (SPP-18), and author’s own measurement tool: Level of Interests Measurement Scale. In the sample of adolescents, general sense of coherence and sense of comprehensibility proved to be positively correlated with general level of interests. Regression analysis demonstrated the significance of psychological resilience components and sense of coherence factors that support the development of interests. Preventive and educational work should aim to support the shaping of a positive and creative identity by stimulating the potentials, resources and talents of young people. Young people’s passions and interests should be stimulated and encouraged towards creating a positive identity.
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Content available remote Mental practice of musically gifted adolescents
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In the last decade, the growing interest in the subject of musicians’ mental practice has produced a significant increase in research on mental and instrumental practice. More than half of all the studies concerns professional musicians, and relatively little research is conducted on children or adolescents. The article will describe research on the mental practice of teenagers attending music schools in Poland and Germany. Questionnaire surveys answer the question of whether young people use mental practice, how they do it, and what the content of mental training while practicing an instrument is. The analysis suggests that gifted adolescents from both countries (1) do not use mental rehearsal very often and (2) use mental practice strategies in a similar way. What they differ in is the frequency of using mental practice as an integral part of their instrumental learning, using musical-analytical strategy, and the quality of mental practice. The study indicates the need to teach mental practice and its importance in increasing the effectiveness of instrumental practice.
EN
Results of some research performed in Poland have evidenced a relation between the aggressive behaviour of adolescents and the parental attitude perceived by them as improper. According to the results of the earlier studies of authors, significant differences were observed between the levels of aggression manifested by girls and boys and in certain dimensions the aggression of adolescent girls was higher than that of boys. Recently study was undertaken to check the stability of differences related to the sex and aggressive behaviour of adolescents. The research was conducted twice. First in the year 2002 (stage I) and again after 10 years in 2013 (stage II). The data for analysis were collected in the Questionnaire of Perception of Parental Attitudes composed by Plopa and the Questionnaire on Aggressive Behaviour prepared by Wójcik. At the stage I the subjects were 86 young people (56 girls and 30 boys) aged 17 – 19, and in stage II, in 2013, the subjects of the study were 80 adolescents (40 girls and 40 boys) aged 17 – 19. The comparative analysis of the results from 2002 and 2013 has shown a limited stability of relation between the perception of parental attitudes as improper and aggressive behavior of adolescents as well as sexual differentiations of aggressive behavior.
EN
The aim of the present study was to examine how students and teachers perceive romantic relationships of adolescents. On the basis of Osgood’s semantic differential scale, the 11-dimensions questionnaire was developed. The sample comprised 135 people – 74 students and 61 teachers. The results indicated that both students and teachers evaluated the romantic relationships of young people rather positively and their perception was similar. However, in case of four out of eleven dimensions, statistically significant differences were noted. The most divergent assessments was observed regarding the durability of adolescent relationships.
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Strength training in adolescents is one of the pending subjects of Physical Education. Habitually, improvements in physical condition are solely and exclusively related to training in aerobic resistance. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the incorporation of Crossfit along with aerobic games on aerobic capacity over a period of 8 weeks in a group of teens during their physical education sessions at the school. The study examined 82 subjects between 16-18 years of age, who were high school students. 40 women and 42 men were distributed into two groups, experimental and control. The results indicate that the effect on aerobic capacity measured through the course navette test is significantly positive through the inclusion of crossfit methodology along with aerobic games in physical education sessions.
EN
Background Unhealthy habits (poor diet, smoking and hazardous alcohol drinking) often originate from early-life. We assessed the knowledge on selected cardiovascular and cancer risk factors, healthy habits and its implementation among adolescents and the correlation with their residence. Material and methods A survey-based study (38-item inventory) was conducted among adolescents from urban and rural-urban areas recruited in two Tricity high-schools and one junior high school from Gniewkowo, respectively. Results A total of 410 students (59% girls) form Tricity and 287 (51% girls) from Gniewkowo completed the inventory. The mean age was 15.3 years. Students from Gniewkowo spend weekly 8.9±6.2 hours on structured physical activity, which contrasts with 5.5±4.5hrs in Tricity(P<0.001). Gniewkowo residents restrained from alcohol consumption in 38.7% vs. 31.1% in Tricity (P=0.04); were active smokers at 9.4% vs. 4.2% (P=0.007); regular fruits and vegetables consumption was low in both Gniewkowo and Tricity 11.8% vs. 8.6% (P=0.19); respectively. The awareness of the risk factors of non-communicable diseases was more common amongst Tricity adolescents. This was consistently coupled with the knowledge on preventive methods. Conclusions The level of knowledge on common non-communicable disease risk factors is higher among teenagers from urban areas, however this does not necessarily translate to more frequent introduction of healthy lifestyle.
EN
The aim of the study was to examine relationships between adolescents’ perfectionism and their parents’ parenting. The research method included the Parental Behaviour and Attitudes Questionnaire – ADOR (Matějček, Říčan, 1983), Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale – MPS (Frost et al., 1990) and Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory – PCI (Flett, Hewitt, Blankstein, Gray, 1998). The research sample consisted of 122 secondary school students aged 16 to 19 (average age 17.37 years), including 44 boys and 78 girls. The main findings of empirical analysis were that there are differences in the relationship between the father’s and mother’s influence on the development of some perfectionism dimensions in their children. The dimensions Concern over Mistakes and Doubts over Action showed a negative significant relationship with the father’s Positive Interest (r = – 0.25**). The relationship was not confirmed in mothers. Concern over Mistakes and Doubts over Action showed a weak significant relationship with Hostility in the father (0.21*) as well as mother (0.25**), and also a moderate relationship with the father’s as well as mother’s Inconsistency (r = 0.25**, r = 0.33**). The dimension Organization showed no relationship with the father’s parenting. In the mother’s parenting, a moderate relationship appeared between Organization and Positive Interest (0.35**).
EN
The aim of the research was to determine the predictive power of parenting styles in predicting subjective well-being and self-efficacy as aspects of adolescent mental health. The sample consisted of 270 students from four high schools in Serbia, aged 16 and 17. The research was conducted during March and April 2021, and research methods that were used are descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis. The authoritative parental educational style contributes to the development of adolescents’ experience of self-efficacy and subjective well-being. Authoritative parents - through high warmth and control - provide the child with an optimal environment for development.
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Content available remote Recreational Exercise Motives of Adolescents and Young Adults
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EN
This study examined the motives for taking part in recreational exercise/sporting activities based on a sample of Turkish young people. Secondly, gender and age group differences with motivational dimensions were investigated. A total of 298 members of 6 Youth Centers voluntarily participated in this study. The Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure (REMM) was administered to all participants. Two × two MANOVA revealed significant main effect for gender (p < 0.03) and age group (p < 0.01). Univariate follow-up tests revealed that the significant main effect for gender was attributable to health subscale, and age group differences were correlated with health, body/appearance, social/enjoyment, and skill development subscales (p < 0.01). It can be concluded that health motives were more important for females than males, and motives relating to health, appearance, and social/enjoyment were more important for young adults.
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