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Serum contains various antioxidant molecules that may provide important protection against free radical attack. The aim of this work was to assess the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and a marker of lipid per oxidation [(thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)] in plasma of healthy smoking and non-smoking young and elderly subjects. In addition, we investigated plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid. In in vitro experiments, the effects of exogenous compounds (ascorbic acid, uric acid, Trolox) on total ferric-reducing activity of plasma (FRAP) were also tested. We demonstrated that total antioxidant capacity of plasma obtained from healthy non-smoking young subjects was significantly higher than plasma antioxidant capacity of smoking elderly subjects. The concentration of TBARS in young non-smoking volunteers was lower than that in young smokers. The concentration of TBARS in elderly non-smoking volunteers was lower than in elderly smokers. Plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were significantly lower in elderly smoker than in elderly non-smokers of the same age. No difference in the plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid were found in 22-year-old smoking and non-smoking subjects. In vitro addition of ascorbic acid, uric acid, or Trolox to plasma samples significantly increased their total antioxidant capacity. Decrease of FRAP values and increase of TBARS concentrations is a significant physiologic condition of the aging process. Supplementation of antioxidants could be useful for the enhancement of antioxidant screen in plasma.
The aim of this research was to investigate the chemical composition of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. fruits extract, to highlight the potential of ultrasound assisted extraction in the fast preparation of extracts rich in polyphenols using different solvents (55%, 78% and 96% hydrous ethanol) and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of formulated extracts. LC-MS/MS was used to characterize the ethanolic extract from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. dried fruits. The extract contains different flavonoids (marein, flavanomarein, quercetagetin-7-O-glucoside, okanin aurone, leptosidin, luteolin, apigenin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid). Several parameters that could affect extraction efficiency were evaluated. Finally, this study focused on determination of plant extracts total phenolic content and their antioxidant capacity. The experimental results allowed the selection of the optimum operating parameters leading to the highest total polyphenolic content, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, and avoiding the degradation of phenolic compounds (ethanol 55%; extraction temperature 323.15 K, extraction time 30 min, liquid/solid ratio 20/1). A good relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was obtained.
The aim of this study was to research the seasonal changes of antioxidant enzyme activity and total antioxidant capacity in leaves of Astragalus onobrychis L. subsp. chlorocarpus (Griseb.) S. Kozuharov et D.K. Pavlova. Leaves of A. onobrychis were collected during the different stages of growth and analyzed for antioxidant enzyme activity: superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase. Quantities of malonyldialdehyde, superoxide radicals, and hydroxyl radicals were measured as well as the content of soluble proteins. Furthermore, total antioxidant capacity was determined by the inhibition of chemiluminescence activity of blood phagocytes by leaf extracts. Stages of vegetation significantly affected the accumulation of superoxide radicals, but there were no significant differences in hydroxyl radical quantity and lipid peroxidation levels during vegetation. Soluble proteins vary greatly between different stages of growth. Seasonal changes were found to have an effect on enzymatic activities. During the spring season, guaiacol peroxidase showed the highest levels. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased their activities in summer, while, during the autumn season, superoxide dismutase showed maximum activity. On the basis of chemiluminescence assay, it can be concluded that leaf extract of A. onobrychis possesses a significant antioxidant capacity thus protecting plants during environmental stress. [...]
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