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EN
The past can be described in different ways by historians and sociologists. They differ in their attitudes toward sources for their studies, and in terms of research sensitivity, which directs their analyses towards given aspects of the past. This text focuses on selected sociological studies of the Holocaust and issues of Polish-Jewish relations (before and during World War II as well as during the immediate postwar years). First the authoress refers to sociological works using the historical prospective in their description of Polish-Jewish relations and/or the Holocaust, and, second, to studies (both historical and sociological) which employ categories of sociological analysis in their description. By referring to Nechama Tec's works, shel presents the methodological problems of sociological studies.
EN
Although numerous writings have referred to Polish-Jewish relationships since the end of the Second World War, they have mainly focused on the Polish reaction toward the Jews, whilst the Jewish position toward the Polish society was somewhat neglected. The following paper is aimed to assess the Polish image held by Polish Jews during the war as it is reflected in the Jewish Underground Press in Warsaw. Based on articles published by political parties, youth movements and underground organizations from the Warsaw Ghetto the way Jews viewed, defined and thought about their surroundings during the war is uncovered. Tracing these images raises questions regarding Jews, Poles and their relationship.
EN
The article concerns the conditions of life in the Jewish district and the ghetto closed since January 1942: food, forced labor, overpopulation, the religious, family and social life (for example there used to be a primary school there). It also refers to the help rendered to Jews by Poles, and generally the Polish-Jewish relations in that small town in the center of Poland inhabited by ca. ten thousand people, located in the District of Radom of the former GG. Jews constituted a half of the entire community of Kozienice, many of them were Hassids. It used to be one of the important Hassidic centers on the Polish soil, established in the 18th Century by tzadik Israel ben Sabatai known as the Magid of Kozienice. In the article, also the action of liquidation of the ghetto in September 1942 is mentioned and the sale of the Jewish property taken from the people sent to Treblinka. The text is based on the archival documents (the files of Judenrat from Kozienice), the press (Gazeta Zydowska /The Jewish daily) and memoirs and testimonies as well as direct interviews.
EN
Historiography of the Holocaust published in Poland in the period from the end of the Second World War and until the nineties seems quite complex. While it did not ignore the topic altogether, it avoided some topics. Especially in the period immediately after the war, Jewish historians in the Central Jewish Historical Commission in Poland engaged in research and published important pioneering studies along collections of documents. From 1968 until the 1980s. historical research on the fate of Polish Jews during the war became marginalized and was carried out almost exclusively in Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. Despite a large number of local studies and research on the controversial topic of Polish-Jewish relations during the war, the historiography still lacks a more theoretical study and a new synthesis of the Holocaust of Polish Jewry has not yet been written.
EN
The article deals with the ways of describing the issue of individual and organised help to the Jews in Polish historical discourse during 1945-2008. The author analyses press statements, academic articles, and popular articles and, finally, books published in Poland (including publications by historians from the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw) as well as émigré texts. The article also discusses the source basis used in the texts by Polish authors, their methods of analysis as well as the political conditions of the discourse concerning Polish-Jewish relations during the occupation, identifying the key time limits. Particular attention has been paid to the trends in historical writing in the immediate post-war period, in the mid-1960s (with the anti-Zionist campaign at the fore), in the mid-1980s, and, finally, during 2000-2006. The article discusses all the key publications regarding help to the Jews by: T. Berenstein and Adam Rutkowski, Szymon Datner, Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, Kazimierz Iranek-Osmecki, Teresa Prekerowa, Jan T. Gross and the research and educational activity of the Main Commission to Investigate Nazi Crimes in Poland, the Society of Fighters for Freedom and Democracy (ZBOWiD) and the Institute of National Remembrance.
EN
The town of Miedzyrzec had a predominantly Jewish population during the inter-war period. The local Jews were for the most part poor, did not invest in the place where they lived and were able to survive on a minimum income. The biggest number of jobs for the Jewish workers were provided by the bristle shops. Despite financial problems, Kehillah ran numerous educational and charitable institutions. The Jewish community had an impressive synagogue and 10 houses of prayer. The establishment of a coeducational Jewish secondary school was a sign of concern of the community leaders about education. During the inter-war period, the Jews also actively joined in the town's political life.
EN
The article presents different ways of looking at the issue of hiding Jews during the war.
EN
In 1942, Gusta (Gustawa) Ehrlich landed in prison in Krzeszowice. This Jewess from Cracow tried to survive the occupation hiding near Cracow. She was denounced and arrested. The presented collection of documents includes her diary in form of the letters to her daughter, being at the same time the record of Gusta Ehrlich's last weeks. She described the conditions in the prison and relation with the fellow inmates. She also left information concerning the person who denounced her to the authorities, informing them of her origin. In the notes, there are numerous hints for the daughters, who remained at large, concerning both the personal and financial matters connected with running the business. Gusta Ehrlich's letter of 1940 to the Metropolitan Curia, in which the author asks for baptism, is a supplement to the diary.
EN
In this article, the author attempts to present the sensitive issue of denunciation of Jews during the occupation. The analysis is based on Polish sources, supplemented with memoirs and testimonies. The starting point and an important intellectual context is the pioneer book by Barbara Engelking 'szanowny panie gistapo' (Dear Mr Gistapo).Informers, acting anonymously, were therefore often more dangerous than the 'szmalcownicy' (blackmailers) and did not see anything morally reprehensible in their actions. Yet it was one of the most menacing and hideous wartime occupations. The author also verifies the commonly held opinion that this phenomenon was relatively limited. It seems that this was a veritable plague during the occupation, which is reflected in literary texts. The fear of a blackmailer or informer was a feeling known to many Jews in hiding. In line with Barbara Engelking, the author treats denunciation as a form of collaboration, secret co-operation with the Nazis in their atrocious pursuits. One of the most important issues dealt with in this article is to answer why the Jews were denounced. Among the primary motives are: the desire to seize the victim's property, frustration, feelings of superiority and power afforded by the perpetrator's anonymity, but also anti-Semitism and racial hatred.
EN
The article is an analysis of Janusz Nasfeter's film 'Dluga noc' (A Long Night) (1967) and the discussion during the producer's screening in June 1967, concerning the film's merit and approving its distribution. Both the subject matter of the film (helping a Jew hiding in a Polish home during the occupation) and the circumstances of its producer's screening (several days after the Israeli victory in the Six-Day War) enable it to be seen as a model: the film itself and its reception are largely characteristic of the Polish memory and attitudes to the Jews during the war, its forms of expression in Polish film, and the language of public debate on this issue.
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tom 8
93-102
EN
I just want to make an introductory note: I - like Marcin Kula in his book on the 'Stubborn question. Jewish? Polish? Humane?' - am very well aware of the fact that the definitions 'Jew' and 'Christian' are not satisfactory. But as Gebirtig was a Pole and at the same time a traditionally raised and educated religious Jew, I decided to use this terminology in this article, which deals with Polish-Jewish relations before the Second World War and includes the relations with the Germans after the invasion of Poland in September 1939. As far as I can see, the topic of the relations between Jews and Christians has now shifted into the centre of academic interest in Poland, judging by the significant number of books and articles published on the subject. These relations, having, as I mentioned, also included the Germans, thus created a triangle full of tensions which are also a topic of research and discussion within the Polish literature of the last twenty years.
EN
By reaching for the collections of Jewish underground press preserved in the Ringelblum Archives, the authoress makes a review of statements about Poland and Poles published in individual papers in the years 1939-1942. She presents the position of individual organizations which published the journals, follows the evolution of the approach to the subject over time, points to differences of view within one and the same organization but also attempts to identify the principal dividing lines between various groups in this regard. The text is a transcript of an address delivered by the authoress on the 51st anniversary of the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Despite their general nature, her findings remain valid to this day.
EN
This article is based primarily on an analysis of hitherto unused trial records related to the so-called August Decree of the PKWN (Polish Committee of National Liberation), which was the basis for indictment of those suspected of committing crimes against Jews or complicity in such crimes. Additional sources are contemporary interviews with eyewitnesses of those events, known as 'Oral History'. The authors attempt to analyse the then situation in rural areas in order to study, in this context, the typology of acts committed, the perpetrators, passive participants and eyewitnesses. The article contains rich sources to exemplify the events described.
EN
The article presents a selection of documents from a 1949 trial, which concluded with the sentence of three ZWZ-AK members, Opatów district, by the Court of Appeals in Kielce - Józef Mularski, Leon Nowak and Edward Perzynski - for complicity in the murder of 12 Jews from the Ostrowiec Swiętokrzyski ghetto in a forest near Kunów. Two of them, severely wounded, returned to the ghetto; one of them survived the war (Szloma Icek Zweigman), and after emigration submitted a detailed and extensive testimony regarding the incident. Zweigman's testimony was the foundation of the investigation and the indictment. Mularski and Nowak, sentenced to death, were subsequently pardoned and released from prison after 1956, as was the third convict. The case was closed as follows: sentence of 1957 to pardon Józef Mularski, followed by another verdict of 2000 that provided for a high compensation. The presented materials are not only proof that members of the Polish underground committed crimes against Jews, but also demonstrate how the Polish judiciary and the Main Commission to Investigate Nazi Crimes in Poland operated. The latter clearly conducted a policy of papering over those criminal cases in which Poles were the perpetrators. The issues raised in the article are inadequately researched, not only in Polish historiography. The presented trial materials come from the Archives of the Institute of National Remembrance
EN
This document from the archives of the Polish Institute and Sikorski Museum in London, is a record of the observations made by an unknown Dutchman in a Warsaw prison in early 1942. According to documents a major concern of 'Polish patriots' was to solve 'the Jewish issue' in Poland after the Allied victory in the war. The document is an interesting contribution to the knowledge of Poles' moods during the occupation.
EN
The presented materials come from the case files of Zofia and Marian Chomin, arrested in 1945 and accused of denouncing Jews living in a tenement house in No. 8a Jablonowskich St. in Lvov during the war, including the poet Zuzanna Ginczanka. During her stay in Lvov Ginczanka three times escaped arrest, and in her last preserved poem, 'Non omnis moriar', included the name of the denunciator, Zofia Chomin. This poem became evidence in the case in question, which ended with the acquittal of Marian Chomin and the sentencing of Zofia Chomin to 4 years imprisonment.
EN
(Title in Polish - 'Polscy biskupi, Watykan i Zydzi polscy w czasie przejmowania wladzy przez komunistów - na podstawie brytyjskich raportów dyplomatycznych'). One strand in the skein of Anglo-Polish relations in the period immediately following the Second World War was the problem of the Jews of Poland, many of whom had fled Poland to Displaced Persons camps in Germany and Austria, as well as to Italy. In their efforts to limit the number of Jews leaving Poland, the British anxiously monitored the situation of the Jews remaining in the country. Relations between London and Warsaw were complicated as a result of the internal power struggle that was being waged in Poland between the Communists and the anti-Communist Opposition, the latter enjoying London's political support. The article will examine British diplomats' reports on the state of Polish Jewry after the end of World War II and the reaction of Polish bishops and the Vatican to the Kielce pogrom.
EN
Jakub Petelewicz talks with Professor Jerzy Tomaszewski about the Polish-Jewish relations in Warsaw under nazi occupation.
EN
Publications on the Holocaust and the history of Polish-Jewish relations quite frequently lead to historical debates in the Polish media. On the one hand, it is a unique opportunity to publicise unknown pages of history, and on the other, a potential threat to contemporary Piolish-Jewish relations.This article is an attempt to explain the Polish reactions to Jan Tomasz Gross 'Fear' and the character of similar debates in Polish media. Thanks to the achievements of experimental social psychology (attribution errors, social identity theory, and the sleeper effect), we can now understand why certain books spawn a media debate while others do not; why the contents of the contested books reach the consciousness of a broader audience and why the debates that surround such books less and less resemble true discussion, in which people cease to talk to one another and engage in polemics against the position of their opponents.
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