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1
Content available Hotels in Łódź city space
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Turyzm
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2015
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tom 25
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nr 2
61-72
EN
The article is an attempt to describe the current development level of the hotel base in Łódź – the third largest city in Poland. The analysis deals with both historical and spatial aspects. The detailed analysis of the hotel distribution in Łódź is based on A. KOWALCZYK’s (2001a) categorisation of hotel location types in urban areas. The Łódź hotel base is compared with other large cities in Poland.
2
Content available remote Salience and second dialect acquisition
88%
EN
This paper explores to what extent salience is a reliable predictor of second dialect acquisition (SDA). I apply a salience-based approach, according to which the adoption or rejection of a number of linguistic forms is determined by their (socio)linguistic properties, to data from a study of the accommodation of university students from Moravia living in Prague (Wilson 2010). Linguists have tested a salience approach in the analysis of language change, dialect levelling and long-term linguistic accommodation, advancing a set of criteria according to which linguistic features are considered “salient” or “non-salient”. I advance a framework for evaluating the salience of six Common Czech (CC) forms and test its effectiveness in predicting which, and to what degree, CC forms are assimilated. I argue that salience alone cannot explain the direction of accommodation or the intensity of SDA and that it is overridden by numerous external factors that are related both to the linguistic variables and to individual speakers.
PL
This article aims at providing a description of nominal groups with the cardinal number in which a fluctuation in syntactic accommodation within the relations with the remaining elements of the group, i.e. adjectives and pronouns, occurs. In a separate evaluation – on account of idiosyncratic morphological and syntactic properties – groups with the numeral dwa (two) and with numerals with the paradigms of the nominal declension of the type pięć (five) are discussed. With the instance of groups with the numeral dwa, the reason for fluctuations is not only the gradual disappearance of the dual form, but also the influence of Latin, in which this category receded very early. With numerals of the type pięć, a gradual switch from the syntax subordinate to the numeral to the syntax subordinate to the superordinate noun in the nominal group is observable. This process was effected by a change in the syntactic function of the numeral and its gradual adjectivization.
EN
The environment and peoples' ideas of the environment are intertwined in the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The environment has an effect on the educational content and people have an effect on the environment. Thus, sustainable education includes producing culture by children and with children. Sustainable learning should include finding ways to consider the effects of actions. The theoretic framework presented in the article was operationalized and studied in four Finnish kindergartens. The results bring children forward as producers of educational content. Children's views have an effect on the educational setting. In agentive learning children learn things that they themselves have been taking part creating. In discussion, the emerging roles of a teacher for ESD are considered. To be balanced, ESD may not only consider the equilibrium between accommodation and assimilation, but also the equilibrium between adaptation and agency.
EN
Film is one of the media which, due to their accessibility and popularity, can be easily used in today’s world as a tool supporting integration and the process of integration into a foreign culture, which is often very distant (geographically and mentally). The paper is based on the assumption that a foreign culture cannot be learned, but that one can get to know it and to learn as much as pos-sible “about it”. The aim of the text is to indicate which criteria should be tak-en into account when selecting films intended for immigrants and refugees, and how these films may support the process of adaptation to the Polish cul-ture.
EN
The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken to subdue it have led to the collapse of both domestic and foreign tourism. The article attempts to provide answers to the following questions: what was the occupancy rate of tourist accommodation facilities by domestic and foreign tourists in the European Union and in selected European countries? Does domestic toursim regenerate faster than foreign tourism? Which country has the greatest disproportions in the regeneration of domestic and foreign tourism? In order to answer the questions, it was decided to use the Excel program together with the R software, in which the analysis of the time series of the occupancy of tourist accommodation facilities throughout the European Union was performed. Based on the results of the research, it was found that, although in the initial phase of the pandemic, the decline in the occupancy of accommodation facilities was similar for both domestic and foreign tourists, in the following months the role of the former in the occupancy of accommodation facilities increased significantly. These differences were visible in all analyzed countries, which confirms the thesis that domestic tourism regenerates faster than foreign tourism. The largest disproportions among selected countries in the regeneration of domestic and foreign tourism were noticed in Malta.
EN
Who is He, to Whom we address words God, Theos, Deus, etc.? How far goes possibility for adaptation of religious and philosophical language from other (non-Western) cultures? Do  people, by  using certain words and terms, denote being of God, or are they just conventional names? Those questions were raised quite early in theological debates in early stages of Christianity, and answers were given by such prominent Church Fathers as Gregory of Nyssa and Basil the Great. The problem resurfaced millennium later, when Western missionaries encountered nations and people whose religious and philosophical concepts were far different from their own. Should they accommodate local terms to fit the Christian concept of God, or should they introduce Western terminology? This translational and linguistic problem leads to the question: are there universal concepts which (despite of cultural affiliation, based on the common human experience) could communicate the Christian idea of God? Findings of Wierzbicka, and her own claim is: yes – there are semantic primes, through which we  can translate our ideas (with minor imperfections). But this last question goes beyond the reach of mere secular linguistics, and enters the domain of theology. For it is theological claim that in our human nature we are capable of addressing Triune God.
EN
As Amartya Sen has rightly noticed (Sen 2005: 182), one of Buddhist main principles was attaching special importance to discussions and dialogue. This argumentative tradition, which is traceable in Buddhism from the very beginning, for example in the texts of the Sutta Piṭaka or the so-called “Buddhist councils,” especially the third of them in the time of Aśoka, who in his edicts advocated respect for dissenting views, finds its exemplification in the Milindapañha — a Pāli Buddhist text, missing original version of which was probably written in Gāndhārī. The analysis of this text, taking into account a variety of possible influences in a multicultural environment of the region of its origin – Gandhāra and during its transmission, as well as the applied artistic means, will give us the opportunity to reconsider the crucial questions regarding the religious and ethnic identity of the Indo-Greek ruler and the attractiveness of Buddhism to the Greeks living in the region of Gandhāra in the second and first century BC. These questions, in a broader perspective, relate to the matters of the dialogue on its many levels: socio-political, intercultural, interpersonal and intrapersonal. Analysis of these levels enables us to notice the essence of the dialogue and its importance.
EN
Aim of the study was to investigate the detailed stratigraphic architecture of the alluvial Volkovce Formation, which was deposited in the northern Danube Basin during the interval between 10 and 6 Ma. Two type locality exposures were subject to facies analysis and interpretation of depositional processes and >500 boreholes served for correlation of spatial variability in the character of the formation. The study was focused on the northern Blatné and western Rišňovce depressions, which are partly separated by the Považský Inovec Mountains horst. It was revealed, that a mostly gravelly fluvial distributary system of the Piešťany Member was deposited in the northern Blatné depression, partly confined by the exposed horst and by incised palaeotopography. The sequence is composed of amalgamated braided river channel bodies with no overbank strata, in response to high sediment supply and low accommodation. The palaeo-stream then crossed the horst in its southern part towards the Rišňovce depression, where there was four times more accommodation. The submerged horst acted as a boundary, where the depositional processes changed to a meandering river and significant overbank deposits started to be preserved. Only small streams were present in the northern Rišňovce depression, which led to very low sediment supply compared to the high accommodation there. The depositional system was affected mainly by the incised palaeotopography, by the location of sediment input together with spatial differences in accommodation rate caused by the activity of the Ripňany Fault on the southeastern side of the Považský Inovec Mts.
10
Content available ŻYCIE CODZIENNE WE WSPOMNIENIACH EŁCZAN
75%
XX
The article presents a description of Elk after World War 2, seen from a perspective of individuals. The pictures of the town are based on the memories of 15 people, who live in Elk nowadays. The selection of respondents was targeted. The group is differentiated in the categories: age and place of origin. Among the interviewees there are people, who were living in Elk and the nearby areas before World War 2, also those who moved there after the war from Vilnius Region, Republic of Lithuania, nearby areas of Grodno (Hrodna) and Nowogrod, Suwalki Region, Region of Kurpie, surrounding areas of Grajewo and Szczuczyn, and finally those who were born after World War 2 in Elk and in other places. The respondents see Elk differently, because they have been living there during various historical periods, however their individual perceptions and memories were taken into consideration. The following questions have been asked: what types of accommodation were Elk citizens living after World War 2, how they perceived their city in different historical periods, what were they doing for living, how looked their cultural life, what were their social relations? Data analysis, based on the interviews, answers above questions and presents subjective picture of everyday live. The article presents many aspects of life common for people from various social backgrounds.
11
Content available remote Hotel Services and Their Marketing Opportunities in the Border Region of Znojmo
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EN
This paper deals with hotel services as a part of tourism. They represent one of the aspects that a ect the number of visitors to the area. Tourists and visitors can then use the hotel services, either for accommodation if they decide to spend some time in that place, or at least the restaurant or other services that hotels in attractive locations may offer. For this purpose, a large number of accommodation facilities can be used, which o er relatively decent standards of service. This paper aims to analyse their offer. The area can boost its earnings from tourism, not only by offering natural beauty, historical monuments, but also specific features, which are sought after by tourists and business travellers. The providers of these services can then use various marketing techniques to raise their profile in a relatively saturated market.
EN
Manufacturing system supervision must allow achieving higher productivity and must ensure the 'total' quality of finished part. The numerical control does not ensure the quality of part in the cases of flexion and of tool wear. The active accommodation to faculty behavior is an important problem that work focuses. This paper proposes a supervision strategy, which integrates detection and accommodation to some faulty behaviors of a cutting process. Active accommodation depends on actions resulting of the detection-decision additional loop. The fault detection and isolation approach allows the characterization of fault parameters produced by 'cusum' algorithms. A milling process is a complex phenomenon, which depends on the material on the cutting operation on the machine and on the cutting tool. In this approach, indicators are derived from the cutting forces and feedrate. An efficient controlled system must monitor the material-tool set. The modelization of the milling process allows to monitor the cutting process and also to characterize the faults. The fault detection is based on z sequential test applied to an indicator built from information provided by existing sensors. The active accommodation strategy allows reconfiguration between position and force control laws and gives an answer to the problem of accomodation according to some faulty behavior of the milling process. For slow defects or quick faults with a little magnitude the design of passive accommodation lies on a robust control method. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the active accommodation strategy.
PL
Nadzorowanie systemu wytwórczego musi umożliwiać uzyskanie wysokiej wydajności i zapewniać 'totalną' jakość gotowej części. Sterowanie numeryczne nie zapewnia jakości części w przypadku wyginania i zużywania się noża. Referat dotyczy ważnego problemu aktywnego dostosowywania się do zakłóceń procesu skrawania. Aktywne dostosowywanie się zależy od działań wynikających z dodatkowej pętli detekcyjno-decyzyjnej. Podejście polegające na wykrywaniu i wyodrębnianiu zakłóceń pozwala scharakteryzować parametry zakłócenia generowane przez algorytmy 'sum kumulacyjnych'. Proces frezowania jest złożonym zjawiskiem zależnym od materiału, operacji skrawania, maszyn i noża. W omawianym podejściu siły skrawania i szybkość posuwu służy do wprowadzenia wskaźników. Aby system sterowania był efektywny musi on monitorować zespół materiał-nóż. Modelowanie procesu frezowania pozwala monitorować proces skrawania, a także scharakteryzować występujące zakłócenia. Wykrywanie zakłóceń polega na testowaniu sekwencyjnym wskaźnika złożonego z informacji dostarczanych przez czujniki. Strategia aktywnego dostosowania się umożliwia rekonfigurację zasad ustalenia położenia i regulacji siły i pozwala rozwiązać problem zakłóceń procesu frezowania. Do powolnych usterek lub szybkich zakłóceń o małej wielkości stosuje się koncepcja biernego dostosowywania się polegająca na ścisłej kontroli. Wyniki symulacji wykazują skuteczność strategii aktywnego dostosowywania się.
PL
Hiszpania jest ważnym kierunkiem wyjazdów dla turystów zagranicznych spędzających urlopy. W latach 1990-2011 przebywało tam od 34 do 56 milionów turystów zagranicznych przez dłużej niż 1 dzień. W zależności od roku Hiszpania zajmuje drugie lub trzecie miejsce na świecie (za Francją, a przed lub za USA), jeżeli chodzi o liczbę turystów zza granicy. Te ogromne liczby przyjezdnych przekładają się na przychody z turystyki zagranicznej, które wyniosły 18,5 mld dolarów USA w roku 1990 i 56,7 mld dolarów w roku 2011, czyli 542 i 1062 dolary na 1 mieszkańca. W liczbach bezwzględnych najwięcej turystów pochodzi z Wielkiej Brytanii, Niemiec i Francji. Udział tych 3 państw w przyjazdach turystów zagranicznych do Hiszpanii wyniósł 62,4% w roku 2001 i 54,9% w roku 2011. Proporcja turystów spoza Europy wyniosła 6,75% w roku 2001 i 7,64% w roku 2011. Jeżeli chodzi o intensywność wyjazdów z poszczególnych krajów do Hiszpanii, na czoło listy wysuwają się Irlandia i Zjednoczone Królestwo, za nimi plasują się Luksemburg, Norwegia, Szwajcaria, Portugalia, Belgia i Holandia. Tak duże ilości przyjazdów turystów zagranicznych do Hiszpanii są związane z walorami jej środowiska naturalnego (długie, ciepłe i suche lato, piękne piaszczyste plaże) i antropogenicznego (ponad 40 pozycji znalazło się na liście światowego dziedzictwa). Szeroko rozwinięte obiekty noclegowe, wliczając w to ponad 18.600 hoteli oferujących 1785 tys. łóżek i 23 300 innych obiektów z 1517 tys. łóżek, zostały dostosowane do potrzeb turystów. W roku 2010 w Hiszpanii na tysiąc mieszkańców przypadało 38,4 łóżek hotelowych oraz 32,6 łóżek w innych obiektach (wobec 6,32 i 9,69, odpowiednio, w Polsce).
EN
Spain is a major destination for foreign tourists spending their leisure. Between 34 and 56 million foreign tourists stayed for more than 1 day there in 1990-2011. Depending on the year, Spain ranks second or third worldwide (after France and before or after the US) with regard to levels of foreign tourists. These large numbers of incomers translate into receipts from foreign tourists, which totalled US$ 18.5 bn in 1990 and US$ 56.7 bn in 2011, that is, US$ 542 and 1062 per 1 inhabitant. In absolute terms, most tourists come from the United Kingdom, Germany and France. The share of these 3 states in arrivals of foreign tourists in Spain amounted to 62.4% in 2001 and 54.9% in 2011. The proportion of tourists from outside Europe accounted for 6.75% in 2001 and for 7.64% in 2011. With regard to intensity of departures from individual countries to Spain, Ireland and the UK ranked top, followed by Luxembourg, Norway, Switzerland, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands. Such high numbers of foreign arrivals in Spain are attracted to assets of its natural (a long, warm and dry summer, beautiful sandy beaches) and anthropogenic environment (more than 40 items listed as worldwide heritage). Extensively developed accommodation facilities, including more than 18,600 hotels offering 1785 thou. beds and 23,300 other facilities with 1517 thou. beds, have been suited to tourist needs. 38.4 hotel beds and 32.6 beds in other facilities were available per thousand inhabitants in Spain in 2010 (compared to 6.32 and 9.69, respectively, in Poland).
14
63%
EN
Technological and economic transformation of the past few decades resulted in a significant re-evaluation of the factors affecting the location of economic activity. General trend in these changes is the declining importance of the so-called “hard factors”, “cost factors” (such as transport costs, labour costs and the amount of taxes), as opposed to the so-called “soft factors”; special emphasis among these factors is placed on human capital. An important aspect of the human factor in the process of innovative economy development, is the quality of life in the area. The high quality of life in a given place encourages people with high creative potential to live in this place. According to Richard Florida’s theories, people do not migrate to find work, but work follows people. Therefore, the so-called “good climate for people” is one of the most important factors for growth in the regions. Qualities, such as cultural heritage, clean air, high level of safety, and the atmosphere of openness and tolerance, are the factors that are increasingly important for the choice of residence. Moreover, there are also features of attractive tourist sites. According to the above statements, it seems that touristic regions in economically developed countries, in addition to large cities, are one of the more desirable places to live for creative people, which is a potential source of innovation for local and regional economies. Assuming that the abovementioned correlations exist, this paper attempts to assess the attractiveness of tourist regions of France. The size and the structure of accommodation was chosen as the indicator of tourist attractiveness.Technological and economic transformation of the past few decades resulted in a significant re-evaluation of the factors affecting the location of economic activity. General trend in these changes is the declining importance of the so-called “hard factors”, “cost factors” (such as transport costs, labour costs and the amount of taxes), as opposed to the so-called “soft factors”; special emphasis among these factors is placed on human capital. An important aspect of the human factor in the process of innovative economy development, is the quality of life in the area. The high quality of life in a given place encourages people with high creative potential to live in this place. According to Richard Florida’s theories, people do not migrate to find work, but work follows people. Therefore, the so-called “good climate for people” is one of the most important factors for growth in the regions. Qualities, such as cultural heritage, clean air, high level of safety, and the atmosphere of openness and tolerance, are the factors that are increasingly important for the choice of residence. Moreover, there are also features of attractive tourist sites. According to the above statements, it seems that touristic regions in economically developed countries, in addition to large cities, are one of the more desirable places to live for creative people, which is a potential source of innovation for local and regional economies. Assuming that the abovementioned correlations exist, this paper attempts to assess the attractiveness of tourist regions of France. The size and the structure of accommodation was chosen as the indicator of tourist attractiveness.Technological and economic transformation of the past few decades resulted in a significant re-evaluation of the factors affecting the location of economic activity. General trend in these changes is the declining importance of the so-called “hard factors”, “cost factors” (such as transport costs, labour costs and the amount of taxes), as opposed to the so-called “soft factors”; special emphasis among these factors is placed on human capital. An important aspect of the human factor in the process of innovative economy development, is the quality of life in the area. The high quality of life in a given place encourages people with high creative potential to live in this place. According to Richard Florida’s theories, people do not migrate to find work, but work follows people. Therefore, the so-called “good climate for people” is one of the most important factors for growth in the regions. Qualities, such as cultural heritage, clean air, high level of safety, and the atmosphere of openness and tolerance, are the factors that are increasingly important for the choice of residence. Moreover, there are also features of attractive tourist sites. According to the above statements, it seems that touristic regions in economically developed countries, in addition to large cities, are one of the more desirable places to live for creative people, which is a potential source of innovation for local and regional economies. Assuming that the abovementioned correlations exist, this paper attempts to assess the attractiveness of tourist regions of France. The size and the structure of accommodation was chosen as the indicator of tourist attractiveness.
15
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EN
We report the results of 3 surveys of visual display terminal (VDT) users who took a minibreak during which they viewed a stereoscopic image of a repeating parallel pattern showing planets. The single image stereogram method employed is called Stretch Eye™, and we evaluated the effects of Stretch Eye™ on asthenopia. An accommodative relaxation of about 1 D was observed in participants while they were gazing at the image. The employees of 2 information technology companies were evaluated according to a visual analogue scale (VAS) for subjective symptoms of asthenopia and eyesight. The results showed that Stretch Eye™ was effective in easing visual fatigue due to VDT work and it improved eyesight under working conditions.
PL
Proces rozpadu Jugosławii, zapoczątkowany po śmierci Josipa Broza-Tito, doprowadził do proklamowania przez Chorwację niepodległości 25 czerwca 1991 roku. Konsekwencją tej decyzji były rozpoczęte działania wojenne, które nie pozostały bez znaczenia dla wielkości bazy noclegowej oraz stopnia jej wykorzystania. Od roku 1995 nastąpił silny proces prywatyzacji, który objął swoim zasięgiem również bazę noclegową. Rządy Franjo Tuđmana, poprzez wzrost bezrobocia i inflacji, doprowadziły niemalże do upadku chorwackiej waluty. Wpłynęło to na zmianę atrakcyjności turystycznej Chorwacji od strony rynkowej. W latach 2000–2007 doszło do poprawy sytuacji na rynku usług turystycznych, co pokrywało się z okresem przemian gospodarczych. Niestety, brak poważniejszych bezpośrednich inwestycji zagranicznych (BIZ) doprowadził w roku 2007 i kolejnych latach do wyhamowania wzrostu chorwackiego PKB oraz zubożenia społeczeństwa. Również międzynarodowy kryzys gospodarczy nie pozostał bez wpływu na sytuację na rynku usług turystycznych. W latach 2007–2008 doszło do rozwoju wielkości bazy noclegowej oraz wzrostu liczby turystów, przy jednoczesnym skróceniu średniego czasu ich pobytu. Lata 2009–2011 to okres, w którym nastąpił spadek liczby turystów w Chorwacji. Można to wytłumaczyć jako opóźniony efekt międzynarodowego kryzysu gospodarczego. Jednak powolny wzrost wielkości wskaźnika rozwoju bazy noclegowej pozwala definiować omawiany okres jako etap pozytywnych przemian na rynku usług turystycznych. W roku 2012 doszło do znacznego spadku liczby miejsc noclegowych, przy niewielkim wzroście liczby turystów. Doprowadziło to do zwiększenia efektywności wykorzystania bazy noclegowej, wzrósł też wskaźnik jej rozwoju. W lipcu 2013 roku Chorwacja stała się członkiem Unii Europejskiej (UE). Wpłynęło to w bezpośredni sposób na rynek usług turystycznych. Nastąpił znaczny wzrost liczby turystów, szczególnie z krajów UE, oraz rozwój bazy noclegowej. Nie bez znaczenia dla wielkości ruchu turystycznego było wprowadzenie obowiązku wizowego od 1 kwietnia 2013 roku dla obywateli z takich krajów, jak Rosja, Ukraina czy Turcja. Zaistniałe zmiany nie wpłynęły jednak na średnią długość pobytu turystów w Chorwacji. W ciągu całego okresu nastąpiło przesunięcie bazy noclegowej z głębi kraju do strefy nadmorskiej, gdzie w roku 1993 kumulowało się 89% miejsc noclegowych, by w roku 2014 skupiać ich 98%.
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The process of disintegration of Yugoslavia which was launched after the death of Josip Broz Tito led to the proclamation of Independence of Croatia on 25th June 1991. The consequence of that decision was civil war which had significance for tourist accommodation’s availability and the level of its use. There has been a strong process of privatization, which extended to cover accommodation facilities since 1995. Government of Franjo Tuđman led almost to the collapse of the Croatian currency by the rise in unemployment and inflation. It has an influence on tourist attractiveness of Croatia from the supply side. Years 2000– 2007 were a period with improvement in the situation on tourist services which coincided with the period of economic transition. Unfortunately, lack of serious FDI brought in 2007 and following years for Croatia suppression growth of GDP and the impoverishment of society. Also the international economic crisis has ay impact on the situation on the market of tourist services. In 2007-2008 there was a development of the accommodation facilities and increase the number of tourists while shortening the average duration of their stay. The years 2009–2011 were a period with a decline in the number of tourists in Croatia. It can be explained as a delayed effect of the international economic crisis. However, the slow growth of the accommodation facilities development indicator allows to define the period as a stage of positive changes in the market of tourist services. In 2012 there was a significant decrease in the number of beds at a slight increase in the number of tourists. This has led to more efficient use of accommodation by increasing rates of the accommodation facilities development indicator. In July 2013 Croatia became a member of the EU. This resulted in a direct manner to the market of tourist services. There was a significant increase in the number of tourists, especially from EU countries, and the development of accommodation facilities. Not without significance for the size of tourist traffic was the introduction of a visa requirement from 1st of April 2013 for citizens of countries such as Russia, Ukraine and Turkey. The changes didn’t affect the average length of stay of tourists in Croatia. During the whole period there was a shift of accommodation from the hinterland to the coastal zone where in 1993 were accumulated 89% of beds and in 2014 were 98% of them.
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Content available remote Baza noclegowa jako czynnik rozwoju regionów w Polsce
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PL
Celem publikacji jest przedstawienie złożoności zjawisk związanych z wpływem bazy noclegowej na politykę regionalną. Artykuł prezentuje znaczenie bazy noclegowej, a w szczególności hotelarskiej, dla rozwoju województw w Polsce. Ukazuje historyczny rozwój bazy noclegowej w kontekście znaczenia na rynku regionalnym. Tłumaczy jej rolę jako istotnego i ważnego elementu wpływającego na współczesną sytuację regionów w naszym kraju, a także jako kluczowej szansy na zmianę bieżącego często niekorzystnego stanu gospodarczego. W publikacji przedstawiono wpływ bazy hotelarskiej na sytuację w miastach i na wsiach. Turystyka oraz powiązane z nią hotelarstwo coraz częściej stają się instrumentem polityki regionalnej, aktywizacji społeczeństw lokalnych oraz budowy podstaw rozwoju gospodarczego. Należy tutaj również dodać wpływ na świadomość społeczną, identyfikację i postawy społeczne, rozwój zrównoważony oraz działania na rzecz podwyższania konkurencyjności i atrakcyjności regionów. W publikacji, oprócz prezentacji analizy danych statystycznych i dostępnych materiałów dotyczących rozwoju bazy noclegowej, oceniono również zachodzące w niej zmiany, a także podjęto próbę prognozy rozwoju bazy noclegowej w Polsce, w obliczu nowej sytuacji gospodarczej. Prognozy, której charakter w dużym stopniu będzie uzależniony od napływu inwestycji zagranicznych, powstawania nowych firm czy opłacalności zaciągania kredytów. Nie bez znaczenia będzie również rozwój sytuacji gospodarczej na świecie i w Polsce, integracja kolejnych krajów z Unią Europejską czy też napływ środków unijnych w ramach regionalnych programów operacyjnych. Na podstawie wyników analiz i studiów prezentowanych w tekście można wysnuć wniosek, że baza noclegowa w kluczowy sposób zmienia rzeczywistość gospodarczą regionów i przyczynia się do poprawy ich sytuacji ekonomicznej. Dotyczy to zarówno obszarów miejskich, jak i obszarów wiejskich, które w większym stopniu różnią od średniego poziomu rozwoju kraju.
EN
The article aims to present the meaning of the accommodation sector, and particularly of hotel management, in the development of provinces in Poland. It presents the historical development of the accommodation sector in the context of its meaning on the regional market. The paper shows the meaning of the accommodation sector as an essential and important element influencing the contemporary situation of regions in our country, and also as a key opportunity to change the current, often disadvantageous economic situation. The paper illustrates the influence of the accommodation sector on the situation in cities and in the countryside. Tourism and its related hotel business are, increasingly more often, becoming an instrument of regional policy, activation of local societies, and the construction of the foundations of economic development. One should also add here the influence on social awareness, identification and social attitudes, sustainable development and activities in the interest of increasing the competitiveness and attractiveness of regions. The publication, presenting the data analysis of statistical and accessible materials concerning the development of the accommodation sector, evaluates the changes that have taken place, and also attempts to foresee the future in the face of the new economic situation. Prognoses, the character of which will, to a large degree, be dependent on the influx of foreign investments, the formation of new companies or the profitability of contracting credits. Also of significance will be the development of the economic situation both globally and in Poland, the integration of subsequent countries with the European Union, or the inflow of EU resources within the framework of regional operating programs.
EN
Liking and respect are postulated as two dimensions of interpersonal attitudes. Liking-disliking is an idiosyncratic response which depends mostly on how target persons influence interests and well-being of the attitude holder and is accompanied by beliefs in their communal traits. Respect-disrespect is a socially shared response which depends mostly on the social status of target persons and is accompanied by beliefs in their agency. This Self-interest /Status Model (SSM) of differences between liking and respect was tested in two studies. It was predicted and found that respect responses (and underlying judgments of agentic traits) are socially shared to higher extent than liking responses (and underlying judgments of communal traits).
19
Content available remote Z každodennosti Čechů v Bulharsku v letech 1878–1904
63%
EN
This study treats aspects of the everyday life of Czechs in Bulgaria in the years following 1878. Individual sections describe the manner of travel from the Czech lands to the Balkans, the reality encountered there, economic and employment conditions, accommodations and the possibilities for leisuretime activities. In order to shed light on the subject, the author utilized sources from Czech and Bulgarian archives and analyzed memoirs published in books or in newspaper articles. To round it out the author examined monographies dedicated to Czech-Bulgarian relations and to Czechs in Bulgaria. This study elucidates some heretofore unanswered questions relating to the lives of Czechs in Bulgaria.
PL
Program prognozujący optymalne rozmieszczenie nowych łączników sterowanych radiowo w sieciach SN, ma w zamierzeniu przynieść wymierne korzyści materialne. Pomoże dobrze wykorzystać nakłady inwestycyjne. Powinien pomóc poprawić szybkość usuwania awarii. Problemy tego typu rozwiązywane są przez grupę ekspertów opierających się na swojej wiedzy i intuicji. Zaimplementowanie tego procesu w komputerze prowadzi do skorzystania z systemu eksperckiego ,algorytmu genetycznego oraz sieci neuronowych, czyli rozwiązania hybrydowego.
EN
Program in networks forecasting optimal accommodation new adaptor steered broadcasting SN, has to bring measurable material benefit in intention. It will help to take advantage investment edition well, should help correct speed of deletion of failure. Software uses with hesitant data, really, problem solves group of expert on knowledge basing and intuition, that leads in software of expert system uses, genetic algorithm and neuron networks, or hybrid solutions.
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