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EN
The article presents problem of social difference and the related mechanisms of exclusion. The paper shows the process how the difference needed in the world is born inequality, discrimination, human suffering, often as unwanted and unintended consequences of group processes. The factor differentiating way to experience the social difference and forms of engagement in reality, is the human identity. The text presents the arguments in favor of the thesis that the difference does not necessarily lead to inequality, and a key role in this process is the identity of the man, with his basic need of recognition. Educational activities are considered an important factor in institutional support in this process. Also shows the process of individualization (the problem of individualism) in the social world as an essential factor in the offending unfavorable balance between an inclusion and social exclusion.
EN
In postmodern outlook, the boundary between the different divisions made inside the mind is blurred. It is the Other of one’s self that indirectly defines the identity of a character or makes it abject. The purpose of this study is to recognize the adjustment identity of Blanche in “The Streetcar Named Desire” in diverse social contexts. The identity of Blanche is under surveillance through some key elements in the postmodern bedrock. The chains of signifiers that are produced by the considered character distinguish the mayhem of the mind that is trying to find a new identity in the altered social context. The study aims to unravel the desire for the Other or the hidden alter that is trying to adapt itself to the new environment while the character is unraveled as abject for the others in the special context. The dangling state of Blanche’s mind is exposed through multiple features of the concepts to embody the blurring border between the Other and the self.
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Currently, the Republic of Kazakhstan is developing a new standard for symmetric data encryption. One of the candidates for the role of the standard is the Qamal encryption algorithm developed by the Institute of Information and Computer Technologies (Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan). The article describes the algorithm. Differential properties of the main operations that make up the Qamal cypher are considered in the questions of stability. We have shown that for a version with a 128-bit data block and the same secret key size for three rounds of encryption it is difficult to find the right pairs of texts with a probability of 2–120, which makes differential cryptanalysis not applicable to the Qamal cypher.
EN
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing’s “dramatic poem” Nathan the Wise (1779) stood out at the time because it showed a Jew, Nathan, in a good light—a better light than the average Christian. Nathan is presented as a figure of wisdom largely on account of his approach to religious difference, especially among the religions represented by the three main protagonists: the Sultan Saladin (Islam), the Knight Templar (Christianity) and Nathan himself (Judaism). In the context of the conflicts of early modern Europe, his message—on the nature of religious difference and the need for toleration—might well seem to earn him the epithet “wise.” This message, which is also the message of the play as a whole, is reinforced by the fact that it is a Jew who delivers it. But, on closer examination, is he the person that at first sight he appears to be? Furthermore, if he were teleported to the here and now, would his take on difference and toleration have enough heft? The essay interrogates the figure of Nathan and answers both questions in the negative. It argues that we need a new Nathan for our globalised, post-colonial, postShoah world: a Nathan who is wise in a different fashion.
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Content available remote Categoria verbale del tempo. Uno studio contrastivo italiano-romeno
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EN
In the analysis of grammatical terminology, we can identify a methodological description of the verbal category of tense common to both Italian and Romanian. That could be taken to account for the fact that these two languages feature the same main moods and tenses, but with some different nuances from the point of view of verbal or temporal aspect. Our study aims to present and analyse such differences between Italian and Romanian, with a major focus on those encountered in the verbal category of tense. The present paper is intended to view tense from the morphosyntactic vantage point (verbal tenses of the finite moods), with the lexical stance (adverbs, prepositional phrases) to be documented in subsequent research.
EN
Thesis. The aim of the paper is to interpret Kierkegaard's concept of repetition as a way of creating and experiencing authentic existence in an environment that is set up to repeat this same, inauthentic content of consciousness. Concept. Repetition is associated with determinism and represents social stagnation. Repetition creates the conditions for an inauthentic existence. The article offers an interpretation of Kierkegaard's concept of repetition, which is the repetition of another and produces authentic existence. Results and conclusions. Repetition automatically produces of the same. The repetition of one's choice of oneself is a process of creating spirit and individuality, which is a fundamental principle of authentic existence. Creating an authentic personality is one of the ways to solve the current crisis in society, which is associated with an inauthentic experience of existence, abdication of responsibility and repetition of lies. Cognitive value. The postmodern society associated with the use of the media is not the cause of social disorientation. It is a means that an individual uses to repeat the same. The social environment and magic themselves are not negative, the negative is the inauthentic attitude of a person to them.
EN
While Polish migration to the UK has attracted much academic attention, there has been less discussion about the consequences of Polish migrants’ encounters with difference in socially diverse UK contexts. In particular, relatively little has been written about how Polish migrants describe or refer to ‘visible’ difference in terms of ethnicity, nationality, religion, class and gender. This reflects a broader tendency in migration studies to frequently overlook the production and transnational transfer of migrant language. In this article, I explore how Polish post-2004 migrants to the northern English city of Leeds produce ‘the language of difference’ and how this migrant language is passed on to non-migrants in Poland. I distinguish two types of language of difference – the language of stigma and the language of respect. I note that migrants construct both speech normativities through engaging with rhetoric exist- ing in the Polish and/or the UK context as well as through developing ‘migrant slang’ of difference. I further argue that the language of stigma and the language of respect are transferred to Poland via the agency of migrants. The article draws upon a broader study of Polish migrants’ values and attitudes towards difference and the circulation of ideas between these migrants and their family members and friends in Poland. It contributes to emerging debates on Polish migrants’ encounters with difference and social remittances between the UK and Poland.
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Content available remote Qualitätsbewertung einer Übersetzung – von der Ontologie zur Axiologie
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PL
The subject of the paper is intersubjectivity and verifiability of judgments about the quality of translation. Criteria for identification of a text to be a translation and possibilities of assessing the value of translation based on the classic triad of truth, goodness and beauty are discussed. The starting point for the axiological assessment is the ontic structure of the original. It is shown how a type of relationship between the original and the translation impacts on the assessment of translation.
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Content available „Inny” w klasie szkolnej
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EN
The article features a description and an analysis of the ‘other’ in the classroom – i.e. a student who differs (significantly) from their peers through, for example, a distinct personality trait, behavior, looks, background or religion. It also demonstrates how a classroom and the ‘other’, function in terms of their mutual dependencies. Finally, the article discusses effective educational methods designed for a classroom, where the ‘other’ is present.
EN
A certain percentage of disabled children are not raised in their biological families. It happens more and more often that the place of residence of such a child is not an institution but the adoptive or foster family. Increased prevalence of this type of families makes the study of this area of functioning of children with disabilities more and more important. The paper covers the issue of dealing with a child’s difference by their adoptive/foster parents. The difference has its source e. g. in a disability. The empirical part of the article is the result of qualitative research conducted with parents from 20 adoptive/foster families that raise a child with a disability (this is a part of a broader research project conducted by the authors with these families). The analysis of the interviews shows the ways to discover the otherness, the difference of the child, the ways to accept this otherness, and the importance they ascribe to the otherness of the child.
EN
Otherness is encountered, noticed and, as the case may be, analyzed in a relation, because it is in a relation that the identity of I and the identity of You is revealed, and our identity is basically rooted in the individual constitution of a specific I and a specific You. The aim of the present study is to probe the phenomenon of otherness (alterity), and through it the fundamental question of who is the other we encounter, and next to show the main ways of experiencing the encounter with the other, whichalways occurs in the sphere of good and evil. In Józef Tischner’s view the experience of the other is a fundamental one, in that it reveals much of our own self-experience. My encounter with the other also throws into relief myself as the other and the fact that his otherness is different from mine. In the beginning of this discovery of otherness, the gap between I and You appears to be unbridgeable. But Tischner believes that the sensation of separateness and even of “being alien” assumes a kind of similarity,with the proviso that the latter occurs on the plane of our mutual being foreach other. Tischner stresses otherness in similarity and similarity in otherness, both constituted and coexistent in the relation between I and You. Tischner’s idea involves a paradox: to open oneself to the alterity of the other, we have in a way to “bear” our own otherness and thereby to come to be “for the other”.
EN
The article is an attempt to analyze the phenomenon of multiculturalism and the issues to accompany in the context of building and achieving human identity. The main emphasis is placed on presenting the psychosocial dimension of constructing identity and its interactive character. Social identity is the other essential part of the issue next to individual identity. The objects of the author’s attention here are therapeutic implications and dilemmas presented in the context of multiculturalism.
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The paper is about confessional differences in Polish religious style. In Polish linguistics there is interest in religious communication, but most of the research applies only to Catholic texts. Besides Catholicism, there are many various Christian and non-Christianreligious communities which should be analyzed. The basis for the analysis were prayers of Polish Catholicism, Lutheranism and Orthodoxy. These are three biggest religious communities in Poland. Very important were he structural, pragmatic and cognitive aspects of texts. The method of the analysis was statistics. The statistical analysis showed that there are a lot of differences, especially inthe lexis and pragmatics of prayers, like creation of God and man, speech acts, entropy and redundancy, lexical fields, etc. All of these are determined by theological and ideological rules of the confessions. But it is important to remember that all the texts are still a realization of one style.
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Content available Value of an Encounter from an Ethical Perspective
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EN
This article investigates the relationship between the possibilities of actualizing our encounters and the openness of human space. It describes various types of encounters and shows the correlations between the perception of difference and the inclination to contravene certain encounters. The effects of encounters based on antagonistic, complementary, dialectic, and synergistic thinking are explored in a way that helps to better understand the aims and consequences of encounters actualized in diverse frameworks of dialogue. Further, the impact of paradigms of reasoning on how the value of meetings is understood is described. The results of the modern perception of relationships in the subject-object scheme and in the ecosystem paradigm are presented. The latter allows for recognition that encounters can facilitate creative activity by expanding human space.
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Content available remote EDUKACJA A PROMOCJA - WSPÓLNE POLA DZIAŁALNOŚCI. WSPÓŁPRACA CZY RYWALIZACJA?
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PL
Nie zawsze łatwo jest powiedzieć, gdzie przebiega granica pomiędzy edukacyjną a promocyjną działalnością muzeów. Zwyczajowo łączy się pracowników odpowiedzialnych za te zadania i same zadania, zakładając, że ich praca jest bardzo podobna a cele zbieżne. W mniejszych muzeach nierzadko ta sama osoba zajmuje się obydwoma dziedzinami pracy muzeum, łączy je bowiem dużo – praca z publicznością, pozycja w strukturze organizacyjnej, wspólne cele i co być może najważniejsze – korespondujące ze sobą projekty. Przy wszystkich podobieństwach, dzieli jednak pracowników edukacji i promocji istotna różnica. Adresatem działań promocji jest całe społeczeństwo, adresatem działań edukacji – ta jego część, która zdecyduje się, za sprawą przygotowanej przez pracowników edukacji i odpowiednio zaprezentowanej przez pracowników promocji oferty, przyjść do muzeum. Punktów współpracy, ale i miejsc, w których mogą pojawić się nieporozumienia między promocją a edukacją jest sporo. Kierując się jednak wspólną dla całego muzeum misją i myśleniem zespołowym, te dwa najbardziej bodaj kreatywne działy muzealne mogą w znacznym stopniu kształtować relacje z publicznością i pozycję muzeum na mapie instytucji kultury.
EN
The process of constructing a social reality where “difference” becomes a social asset rather than a monster that threatens peace and progress must commence with a phenomenological understanding of social interactions within and among human societies. In my opinion, Hegel, more than any other thinker, has constructed a phenomenological framework that adequately captures and represents the nature of group interactions within human societies. This paper explores the Hegelian phenomenon of social identity, and, especially, characterizes the interactions between and among various social identities. It is a modest effort to contribute theoretically to the available discourse on the management of “difference” in multi-ethnic societies.
EN
Learners’ beliefs on language learning and perceived self-efficacy are important to the success of their second/foreign language (SL/FL) learning. To reveal the general profiles of and relationship between Chinese students’ beliefs about English learning and self-efficacy, the present study examined beliefs about English learning and self-efficacy held by Chinese university EFL (English as a FL) learners at differing English proficiency levels. A total of 1,698 students from a top university in Beijing answered a battery of questionnaires. The results revealed a general overview of the students’ beliefs about the nature of language learning and the roles of teachers, feedback and learning strategies, and self-efficacy. Another major finding was that participants at different English proficiency levels differed significantly from one another in beliefs about language learning and self-efficacy.
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Content available Śmierć i (wieczny) powrót Zaratustry
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EN
The paper argues that F. Nietzsche’s magnum opus Thus Spoke Zarathustra can be looked upon as a narrative about the protagonist’s maturation to understand, articulate and accept the thought of the eternal return which is tantamount to accepting the prospect of his own imminent death and the enigma of afterlife. I seek to prove that Zarathustra purposely defers systematic and coherent explanation of his deepest thought, as well as he dismisses its interpretations proposed by his animals, disciples, and by his main enemy – the dwarf. The thought of the eternal return can only be revealed, enacted. For this purpose, Zarathustra must actually die and return and by so doing bestow on the next generations the gift of his secret intuition. It can be argued convincingly that the last two chapters of part IV of Thus Spoke Zarathustra are conceived as a powerful performative reenactment of the thought of the eternal return as a selective force. The force, however, which does not bring a different (resp. “better”, “stronger”…) existence, as Gilles Deleuze would want it, but the very same, identical life.
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Content available remote EDUCATION AND PROMOTION - COMMON FIELDS OF ACTIVITY. COOPERATION OR RIVALRY?
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EN
It is not always easy to determine the boundary between the educational and promotion-oriented activity pursued by museums. It has become a custom to link staff members responsible for those tasks and the tasks themselves, going on the assumption that their work is extremely similar and targets - concurrent. In smaller museums the same person frequently deals with both titular functions fulfilled by the institution, because they share numerous features: work with the public, position in the organisational structures, joint targets and, possibly the most prominent, corresponding projects. Despite all these similarities, there exists an essential difference between employees dealing with education and promotion. The latter is addressed to society as a whole, while education - to that part, which decided to come to the museum as a result of an off er prepared by staff members involved in education and suitably presented by those responsible for promotion. There are quite a few cooperation points, but also instances where misunderstandings may occur between promotion and education. By carrying out the joint mission of the whole museum and heeding group reflections, these departments, probably the most creative in a given museum, can to a considerable degree mould relations with the public and the position held by the museum on the map of cultural institutions.
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