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Eversion of the vaginal mucous membrane in female elephants may be caused by hormonal disorders, circulatory disorders, vaginal polyp or papilloma. The described case refers to an African elephant with a massive edema of the underbelly and eversion of the mucous membrane of the right pudendal lip. The treatment consisted of local cleaning and disinfection, and parenteral (intramuscular) injecting of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory steroids. Additionally the animal was stimulated to increase physical activity. After two weeks of treatment the underbelly edema regressed and the eversed mucous fold was seen only during urinating, in the following week all the symptoms regressed. The described case of eversion of the vaginal mucous membrane was probably caused by a deficiency of activity and movement. Elephants in their natural environment are very active animals, travelling long distances in search of food and water, while in zoological gardens they usually do only minimal exercise to eat and drink.
The aim of the study was to determine the localization of estrogen receptors α in the parahippocampal gyrus (gyrus parahippocampalis) following 17β application in ovariectomized rabbits. Studies were carried out using an immunocytochemical method. Estrogen receptors a immunoreactivity in neurons and astrocytes were detected in the cellular layers of parasubiculum, perisubiculum and entorhinalis region. However ERα immunoreactivity was not detected in astrocytes ovariectomized rabbits in the experimental group where there was no E2 application. On the other hand, the neurons showed very weak colorization. The results obtained indicate that the structure of rabbit parahippocampal gyrus is under the influence of estrogen, which causes an increase in ERα expression.
Despite great advances in new technologies for breeding and rearing fish, little progress is noted in prophylactic technologies for spawners, particularly those used in carp rearing. The condition and non-specific immunity of males and females has a decisive impact on the quality and fertilization of spawn, on the course of rearing larvae and fry in the first weeks of life, and on the subsequent stages of rearing. The aim of the current study was to determine the level of lysosome and ceruloplasmin activities and on the level of gamma globulin in the females of three carp lines reared in Poland- starzawski, zatorski, and węgierski. The results of the study indicated unequivocally that the highest non-specific humoral immunity potential was noted in the females from the starzawski line. The highest statistically significant levels of lysosome and gamma globulin activity were noted in selects from this line in comparison to those of the zatorski or węgierski lines. However, no significant differences were noted in the ceruloplasmin activities or total protein levels among the lines studied. This informs the direction of further study, which should focus on identifying lines and their cross-breeds that have the highest potential immunity to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections.
Progesterone (P4), which is produced in the corpus luteum, determines the timing of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in many species. The physiological effect of P4 upon target cells is mediated through interaction of this hormone with two specific nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms (PR-A and PR-B), but also through non-genomic mechanisms. The non-genomic action of P4 has been found in the cells of a number of tissues, including in the female reproductive tract. However, the nature of this mechanism is still unknown. It has been determined that P4 can directly affect enzyme activity, nonspecificly change the membrane fluidity which affects receptor stability or it can bind specific membrane receptors for P4, which stimulate early intracellular signaling pathways and initiate the specific cellular response. There are at least three different proteins localized in the cell membrane, which can be a potential membrane progesterone receptor. This paper presents the latest data concerning the intracellular and membrane progesterone receptor and the genomic and non-genomic action of P4 in the female reproductive tract.
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