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EN
The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of domestic and foreign investments in the Polish market and analysis of their level in the context of the development of the Polish economy. Article verifies the hypothesis that the domestic investments and inflow of foreign direct investments have a positive impact on the development of the Polish economy. It seems that regardless of the views and studies, there are more benefi ts from the infl ow of foreign investments into Poland by their positive impact on the competitiveness of the Polish economy. However, any of their restrictions refl ect negatively on the economic growth of the country. Both domestic investments and foreign direct investments are the measure of the competitiveness of the economy. Apart from any threat, foreign capital is an opportunity for the development of the Polish economy. Poland trying to decrease disparities in relation to the developed countries should strive for improve the investment climate in order to not only attracts foreign capital, but also to create optimal conditions for the development of domestic investments and thereby stimulate economic growth.
EN
The work concerns Polish communist government policy towards private businesses (prywatna inicjatywa) between 1944 and 1971. The obvious lack of acceptance for private ownership during the period spanning form the end of the Second World War to the beginning of Gierek's time, almost eliminated privately owned firms in Poland. As there was no clear and consistent policy towards ownership, both businessmen and their employees were left confused - subjects of an ongoing ideological conflict between the so-called 'repressive' and 'rational policies. Supporters of the 'repressive' camp claimed that privately owned companies should be eliminated completely, being entirely superfluous to the functioning of the socialist economy, while the 'rationalists' argued that companies were necessary as long as communism was still 'under construction' and would be phased out in due course. Unfortunately, the 'repressive approach dominated most of the period in question; there were only brief moments of weakness called 'green lights for private owners'. These 'green-light' periods almost always appeared during economic and political downtimes and were used by the communists to appease the society and calm manifestations of social disturbance. As a result of these short periods of relative freedom, whatever the motivation, private trade and production (mostly hand-made articles) was never totally eliminated, but was, of course, greatly reduced. This paper discusses the role of privately owned firms in the supply of scarce goods and services, as well as the role of socialist propaganda in creating a negative image for private company owners (prywaciarze).
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Content available remote Kryzys gospodarczy późnego średniowiecza czy kryzys historiografii?
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The presented text is a voice in a discussion on the economic crisis affecting Polish territory during the Late Middle Ages. The author proposed a polemic with the theses contained in the chapter entitled The East and the West. European economy in the fourteenth-fifteenth centuries, published in: Polish Lands and the West. Studies on the Growth of Mediaeval Europe, edited by S. Gawlas. The hypothesis formulated by M. Dygo about a crisis of grain farming, animal husbandry and some of the crafts is based on an analysis of fifteenth-century prices. The author maintains that the present-day state of research makes it impossible to accept the suggested thesis. A comparison of fifteenth-century prices from Cracow, issued in 1935 by J. Pelc, contains fragmentary data, and all conclusions drawn upon this basis give rise to serious methodological doubts. Furthermore, studies dealing with the Polish economy during the Late Middle Ages (in contrast to the early modern era) were never part of a popular current of research, and our knowledge remains slight. In addition, during the past decades economic historiography has been experiencing a profound crisis of its own and has not offered new monographs which would entitle building justified hypotheses about the state of the late mediaeval economy as a whole. This is the reason why all theses validating or toppling the conception of an economic crisis in Polish lands during the twilight of the Middle Ages remain mere theoretical constructions.
EN
The article presents the findings made by Polish historians as regards the dissemination and acceptance of European mediaeval thought on Polish soil. The beginnings of studies by Polish scholars dealing with assorted problems connected with the economy go back to the second half of the nineteenth century, and Stanislaw Smolka is regarded as one of the first historians who drew attention to the significance of this issue. The interests of the Polish historians were concentrated chiefly on explaining certain mechanisms ruling the economy and on recording the functioning of its practical symptoms. Pertinent Polish literature either neglected or relegated to the margin the reception of West European views about the economy in Poland during the Middle Ages. Inquiries whether and to what degree did foreign ideas influence the economic transformations occurring during the Middle Ages in Poland pertained mainly to such phenomena as the rights of the monarch in relation to the property of the subjects, the right to establish and collect taxes, usury or monetary questions.
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The article presents main economic motives for going private strategies. The problem is presented from empirical point of view. We have also been interested in Polish cases of going private, which are presented in the last part of article.
EN
Technological progress and the changes in the structure of education in a modern society create a new type of services. The combination of specialist knowledge with new forms of its conveying are underlying the sector of electronic economy based on knowledge, commonly known as e-business. The European Union notices the occurring changes and supports them by grants, available also in Poland. The article focuses on the issues concerning the funds for e-services.
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The paper provides a brief overview of the role of the theatre, its artistic and social functions during the indicated time period. It characterises the relationship between society and a theatre and against, and also the financial issues underlying this bond and the status of the theatre professionals. Through changed socio-political conditions after 1989, new opportunities have opened up to creative professionals who, at the same time, have lost their theme of a tacit revolt against the system and the metaphor as the major tool for naming “no-freedom“, shut-down state borders and for the non-existence of personal prospects. On the one hand, the open European space allows for exposure to new cultures, on the other hand, however, it is conducive to the unification of (self)-themes, of the role of an individual in the family and in society, to the grey mediocrity of quality, and to favouring form over content. Economic and, oftentimes, technocratic thinking would indirectly impact the value system of the theatre arts, its mission in the over-technologized world. The artistic functions of the theatre are bound to be defined and created by creative professionals (this holds provided that critique has a set of criteria applicable both within the theatre arts and vis-à-vis the society). The societal functions ought to be a component part of a knowledge-based society, with special concern for the cultural development of the society.
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Content available remote Hodowla i handel końmi w Polsce XVI w.
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EN
Horses and their breeding were part of the Polish gentry tradition. In time, they became included into national customs, hence the term eques Polonus. In sixteenth-century Poland use was made of many types of horses of assorted provenance, mainly in transport and wartime. Due to its distinctly cavalry nature the Polish army relied on a great number of horses. Renaissance-era transformations in the Polish economy of the early modern era inclined the gentry towards increased interest not only in the horse trade but also in breeding. Textbooks translated from foreign languages came to the aid of the Polish noblemen; several works were also written at home. The rulers always enjoyed the greatest possibilities, and thus achievements, in horse breeding. The largest stud farms were situated along the eastern borders of the Polish state, where breeding was facilitated by geographical conditions. Furthermore, the most important routes along which horses were driven for the purposes of trade ran across Ruthenia and Little Poland. The significance of this branch of the economy was testified by the fact that sometimes the ruler forbade horse trade with a neighbouring state, which resulted in the closure of the frontiers. Horses used in the army were subjected to a careful selection followed by appropriate training. Local literature could boast certain achievements in the field of specialist textbooks, to mention the works of K. Dorohostajski or K. Pieniążek, who concentrated mainly on descriptions of the stables, breeding and training. The prices of horses in sixteenth-century Poland oscillated from 10–40 florins, although in certain cases a single horse was considered worth more than a thousand florins.
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Content available remote Zmiany strukturalne w gospodarce polskiej
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EN
Nowadays, among the most important factors which contribute to the general efficiency of the economy, there are the structural changes. The structural changes very frequently result in the change of the production structure and the structure of using the production factors in economy. Furthermore, the structural changes in the Polish economy proceed much faster than in other mature economies of the developed countries. Therefore, studying the structural changes in this case is quite complicated and it re-quires the application of appropriate methods. List of analysis prepared in this paper made it possible for the authors to identify the Polish economy's stage of development. It turned out that our economy stopped on a stage of the postindustrial society, which means that it still did not join the group of developed economies. Unfortunately, according to results of the analysis the Polish economy will remain on the same stage in the nearest future, without possibility to carry out this civilization leap.
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Content available remote Koncepcja smart specialisation w polityce ekonomicznej Unii Europejskiej
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EN
Stimulation of innovation and entrepreneurship is one of the main objectives of the ongoing European Union policy. This priority has been considered in long-term community development program for the coming years entitled “Europe 2020. A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive”, acting in the designated objectives continued failure of the Lisbon strategy. This time, however, to get the desired effect in terms of increasing the innovation capacity of the Member States and the regions located within the EU, it was decided to use different instruments. Particular importance in this respect is assigned to the new instruments of economic policy, including the concept of smart specialization, which is the subject of consideration in this article.
EN
The paper aims to present the current political and economic situation in Central Asia and to examine the present and future role of the European Union in development of the region. The paper identifi es the main areas of the UE’s engagement and the effectiveness of the organisation’s strategy in Central Asia. Central Asia is a region where Sino-Russian interests have always converged. However, in 1970s it attracted the interest of the United States which has attempted to gain infl uence in Central Asia ever since. The regional situation is extremely complicated not only because of political and economic transition in Russia but also the emergence of China as a world superpower and a lack of political stability in post-Soviet republics. Nearly impossible to eliminate sources of terrorism, strong separatist and fundamentalist movements, constitute another threat to regional peace and stability. Hence the role of the EU, which is the world leader in encouraging social and economic development, promoting respect of human rights, democratic rules of governing and establishing free trade rules, appears vital to achieve balanced development in Central Asia.
EN
Efficient development of the railway transport, which is the basis of country transport system, is a prerequisite for sustainable functioning of all sectors of the economy, for ensuring Ukraine’s status as a major transit country, contributing to its social and economic development, economic security and defense capacity. An integrated approach to the development of the transport system of Ukraine clearly indicates the priority of the railway from the standpoint of sustainable development. Currently, the domestic transport sector, including railway transport is not always ready for new challenges of the environment, that periodically destabilize the situation in the transport services market. That is why there is a need to establish a mechanism for economic and organizational relations that would provide adequate, timely and flexible response to changes in the environment, railway industry companies’ adaptation to them. The article describes the organizational and economic basics for sustainable development, defines its components and reveals their identity.
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The objective of the paper was to present the current ways of financing the EU budget by Poland and to identify changes in this respect which one should expect after the expiry of the Multiannual fi nancial framework, that is after the year 2020. The analysis focused on two proposals of the new resources of the EU budget, as presented by the European Commission in 2011 in the form of legislative proposals, that is the so called new VAT (value added tax) and a new tax on fi nancial transactions (TFT). These proposals, if implemented, would affect the pattern of Poland’s contributions tothe EU budget and would reduce the burden of these contributions. The considerations began with the information about the current sources of financing the EU budget by Poland (against the general rules and resources of the EU budget). Next, both European Commission’s proposals of new taxes were presented and their pros and cons were examined as compared to the present ways of fi nancing the EU budget. This was the basis for conclusions related to possible implications of both proposals for Polish contributions to the EU budget. Moreover, the costs of the rebates to the EU budget, which are fi nanced by Poland, were estimated. Finally, possible implications of the two new proposals for Poland’s cost of fi nancing the rebates were discussed.
EN
The article presents the results of the second edition of research on the economic awareness, conducted among 445 participants of educational programs for students in the last grade of primary schools or in first grades of post primary schools. The research enabled estimation of students' knowledge of economic concepts and identification of the areas of economic knowledge in which they have acquired common misconceptions. It also allowed for defining the areas that teaching should be focused on.
EN
The article presents the theory of clusters that are treated as natural elements of European model of economic development. There are highlighted Polish Forum of Lisbon Strategy point of view that indicated clusters as one of fundamental ideas recommended for Polish economy. In based on literature and observation of article authors the concept, examples of Polish clusters and their role in strategic alliance are presented.
EN
Integration is a word very frequently used and probably one of the most fashionable in the present everyday life of the Balkan people. Politicians, artists, intellectuals speak about political, economical, cultural, European Integration as well as spiritual integration. The word integration is widely used, as much as there have been efforts to define or understand it by the general public, besides the fact that integration is perceived as something “good in nature,” especially the integration with Western community. Hence, one of the issues, which everybody agrees on in Albania and in the region is that the accession into the European Union is still the main objective of the region prospect. European integration is perceived as a solution of the major problems during the process of the socio-economic development of the countries of the region. The authors think that the efforts of the people of the region toward economic and democratic progress should not be simply treated as tools used to be “self-integrated” in the EU, but they rather have to be perceived as positive processes undertaken by each country during transition. Keeping an economic perspective, this paper aims to discuss the qualitative benefits and costs for Albanian economy, in its integration way toward the EU.
EN
The essence of the categories of «knowledge economy» and «knowledge-based economy» and the opportunity of their usage for characterizing of the economy of post-industrial society are considered.
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Content available remote The New Global Leader in a Clean Energy Race. The Green Development in China
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nr 24
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China is planning to develop a green energy sector. Their activities plan to change the energy balance mainly dependant on coal. During the next five years Beijing would like to promote the use of clean energy and an increase in the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption. The future modernization of the state economy should consider more alternative sources of energy. It is necessary to achieve sustainable development and to increase the state of economy competitiveness.
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The author proposes corrections to the recent Polish translation of Diocletian's Edictum de pretiis, concerning the terms duracina and moneaea.
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Content available remote Handel polsko-niemiecki w latach 1918–2006 (uwarunkowania i etapy rozwoju)
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EN
The economic relations between Poland and Germany from the end of the First World War to 1996, perceived mainly from the Polish viewpoint, were marked by three attempts at an intensification of trade. The first took place in the wake of the outbreak of a customs war in the middle of 1925. At the time, representatives of the German economic circles and the Polish economic spheres, supported by the Polish government, embarked upon efforts to sign a trade treaty. A conspicuous commercial boost occurred in the 1970s, when upon the basis of imported technologies and foreign credits the Polish authorities intended to modernise Polish industry, with prime attention concentrated on West Germany. The third period in trade intensification accompanied the advantageous privatisation conducted in Poland during the 1990s. This process was favoured by an inflow of German capital as part of direct foreign investments and by Poland’s access to the European Union.
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