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The dairy propionibacteria, which are traditionally used for the production of Swiss cheeses, are able to synthesize valuable biomolecules, e.g. B group vitamins, propionic acid, and trehalose with unique chemical and physical properties. Both, dairy propionibacteria cells and trehalose, have found many applications as attractive and effective components in food, beauty and health care products. This study confirmed the ability of several strains from the Propionibacterium genus to create trehalose from glycerol. The research aimed to investigate the effect of crude and pure glycerol on biomass production and on trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1. The results indicated that the capacity for trehalose accumulation by Propionibacterium spp. was strain dependent. Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii 1 was able to grow on crude glycerol. For both, pure and crude glycerol, the highest amount of dry biomass leveled off at about 4 g/L. While the use of crude glycerol had no effect on the final concentration of biomass, it reduced the accumulation of trehalose in the cells. An increase in the concentration of carbon source (2-8%) resulted in more than a 5-fold rise in trehalose production. The highest trehalose concentration of 195.04 mg/L was obtained with cultures of the said strain supplemented to 8% with pure glycerol.
Our previous studies showed that glycerol fermentation by Hafnia alvei AD27 strain was accompanied by formation of high quantities of lactate. The ultimate aim of this work was the elimination of excessive lactate production in the 1,3-propanediol producer cultures. Group II intron-mediated deletion of ldh (lactate dehydrogenase) gene in an environmental isolate of H. alvei AD27 strain was conducted. The effect of the Δldh genotype in H. alvei AD27 strain varied depending on the culture medium applied. Under lower initial glycerol concentration (20 gL-1), lactate and 1,3-propanediol production was fully abolished, and the main carbon flux was directed to ethanol synthesis. On the other hand, at higher initial glycerol concentrations (40 gL-1), 1,3-propanediol and lactate production was recovered in the recombinant strain. The final titers of 1,3-propanediol and ethanol were similar for the recombinant and the WT strains, while the Δldh genotype displayed significantly decreased lactate titer. The by-products profile was altered upon ldh gene deletion, while glycerol utilization and biomass accumulation remained unaltered. As indicated by flow-cytometry analyses, the internal pH was not different for the WT and the recombinant Δldh strains over the culture duration, however, the WT strain was characterized by higher redox potential.
Study presented here demonstrates the ability of three newly isolated strains, obtained from environmental probes (manure, bottom sediment, and food waste) and identified as Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium butyricum, and Hafnia alvei, to synthesize 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, fumaric, succinic, and butyric acids), and ethanol from glycerol. The production of 1,3-PD as well as the glycerol pathways in C. bifermentans and H. alvei cells have not been investigated and described yet by others. Moreover, there is no data in the available literature on the products of glycerol utilization by H. alvei and there is only some incoherent data (mainly from the first half of the twentieth century) about the ability of C. bifermentans to carry out glycerol degradation. Additionally, this study presents complete hypothetical glycerol pathways and the basic fermentation kinetic parameters (such as yield and productivity) for both strains as well as for the newly isolated C. butyricum strain.
Content available remote Functional polypropylene composites filled with ultra-fine magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide was prepared under controlled conditions from aqueous Mg(NO3)2 and NaOH solutions. The small, nanoplate-shaped particle size distribution was monomodal from 164 to 459 nm. Functional polypropylene/Mg(OH)2 and polypropylene/polypropylene 1% maleic anhydride/Mg(OH)2 composites were prepared containing 10% or 30% Mg(OH)2. The composites have a high Young’s modulus (twice that of polypropylene) and comparable tensile strength but less ductility. EDX examination of the fractured composite surfaces suggested a homogeneous Mg(OH)2 distribution for composites produced with the addition of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride. The polypropylene/Mg(OH)2 composites showed good antibacterial activity. The polypropylene/polypropylene 1% maleic anhydride/Mg(OH)2 composites were less effective.
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