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The paper describes changes in the health sector wages in Poland in absolute terms as well as in relation to an average wage in the economy. The period of the analysis covers years 1998-2007, with a special focus on changes since 2004. It has been shown that nominal wages in the health sector have been increasing in the last years. Quite recently also their relation to an average has improved. Observed labour market and sector trends strengthen by a possible future labour supply shortages could have an effect on the increase in medical labour cost share in total costs of the Polish health care system.
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Content available remote 'Moral Hazard' in Health Care
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EN
The following article deals with the issue of moral hazard in the health care system. In the case of the lack of immediate payment (or incomplete payment) for health service provided, patients tend to abuse the benefit system demanding extra services which exceed the necessary level in terms of quality. Also, it is a common fact that they neglect to foster individual health responsibilities. The authoress presents different types of abuse in this sphere, roots and consequences of this phenomenon and ways of neutralizing the problem.
EN
The article is an attempt to summarize the effects of restructuring health-care units reporting to county self-governments. Examples are the counties of Lower Silesia, where the problems of health care reform are particularly important. It was found that the transition process advanced here is relatively high. Unfortunately, this results in serious debt of county units.
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EN
This paper presents an overview of health care staff situation in Poland. During last years we can observe significant decrease of indicators of number of medical staff per population (in all medical staff groups). Working conditions of health care staff were not improved after implementation of health care reform in Poland, and some of changes were negative for health care staff (e.g. staff reduction). Low level of the remuneration and difficult situation at the labour market, make Polish doctors and nurses to work in other European Union countries. This trends and low indicators of health care personnel in Poland is very worrisome. The problem of the migration of health care personnel refers not only Poland. Results of the research of WHO inform about 'the world crisis of resources of health care personnel'. According to estimation of the WHO, undermanning in the global health care system is about 4 mln of medical staff. In accordance with the strategy of the WHO, for the purpose of dealing with problems of the international migration, it is necessary to take actions, both at national and international level. To find the best solution for these problems countries must work both individually and together.
EN
The article analyses the differences between theoretical concepts of social policy models: US-liberal and the Euro-social, according to the classification of Gustav Esping-Andersen. The Liberal social policy model assumes reduced state interference in social life. The Social model offers the citizens a broad range of social security. Contradictory solutions within both models are presented on the social policy of the United States and Sweden. Selected areas analysed include health care system, social aid programmes and provisions of the labour market. The fundamental institutions of social policy in the United States are private market and family. By contrast, in Sweden it is the state that acts as most important social policy institution and provides extensive care from cradle to grave. Anyway, both the United States and Sweden are withdrawing from the classic models. In the first case it means increasing state involvement in the conduct of social policy. The second one is associated with increased private sector participation in providing social services and greater participation of the citizens.
EN
From the eighties many developed countries withdrew from many sectors of the economy in order to sustain international competitiveness and financial sustainability while preserving a dominant role on the market of health care. Such trend can be explained by ageing populations, the diffusion of health care technologies, changes in the disease structure and in the preferences of the society. In this study the authors examine these phenomena through the review of the British and Dutch health care systems and allocation mechanisms. Both countries design their health care system through very similar principles: efficiency and equity; and also follow quite different socio-economic preferences, while they respond to challenges in different ways. The role of private sector in the Dutch health care system has been increasing and this has resulted in the development of a national health insurance system based on regulated competition. The underlying principal of British health care has been the promotion of equity which has strongly endorsed the preservation of state-held territorial service monopolies. In spite of finding rudimentary differences in the two countries' health system, governments' role in redistributing health care resources and coordinating health care market remained dominant. At the same time, with the pressure on national health care budgets the role of the private sector, efficiency considerations and competition amplified. The authors find that in spite of the challenges of the global and domestic environment, national health policies still have the possibility to take public preferences firmly into account, and, as a consequence, welfare states do not only reflect to recent changes in the health care sector but have the potential to bring them about.
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