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The aim of the study was the evaluation of the cytotoxicity and virucidal activity of the extracts from underground parts of Iris flavissima Pall. The plant material was extracted using: methanol/H₂O (1:1 v/v) and methanol. The examination of the cytotoxicity of the extracts in the concentration of 0.025; 0.05; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1; 2, and 5 mg mL⁻¹ was carried out on GMK cell cultures. The cultures were incubated at 37°C in an atmosphere with 5% of CO₂ for 24-72 h. The cytotoxicity was measured by the colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) method. Human enterovirus ECHO 9 was used for the evaluation of the virucidal activity of the extracts. The suspension of the virus was mixed (1:1 v/v) with the examined extracts at the concentrations non-toxic to GMK cell cultures and incubated at 37°C for 1 h, and then the virus was titrated in the GMK cell culture. The titre of the virus was estimated according to the Reed-Muench method. The methanolic and methanol/H₂O extracts were found to be non-toxic to GMK cells at the concentration of 1 mg ml⁻¹ and 2 mg ml⁻¹, respectively. The virucidal effect was observed for the both investigated extracts. The methanolic extract decreased ECHO 9 replication by 1.46 log, and methanol/H₂O extract - by 2.08 log.
Pollen grains of 29 Turkish taxa of genus Crocus L. belonging to Iridaceae were examined by light and electron microscopy. The pollen of Crocus is spheroidal in shape, with a thin exine characterized by echinate (spinulate)-microperforate sculpture and a relatively thick intine. Three types of aperture are recognized: a spiral furrow, more or less extensive furrows, and short furrows. Spiral furrows appear to be the most frequent aperture type among the Turkish Crocus species. Apertures vary within some species. The results are compared with those on the pollen morphology of Crocus species previously investigated by several European workers.
Dwa nowe stanowiska mieczyka dachówkowatego Gladiolus imbricatus L. odkryto w okolicach Radomia: na wilgotnej łące (zbiorowisko Holcus lanatus-Polygonum bistorta ze związku Calthion palustris) koło Janiszewa oraz na łące ziołoroślowej (zespół Geranio-Filipenduletum ze związku Filipendulo-Petasition) w sąsiedztwie miejscowości Trablice. Zachowanie populacji mieczyka dachówkowatego wymaga aktywnej ochrony jego siedlisk poprzez regularne koszenie i usuwanie podrostu drzew i krzewów.
Gladiolus occurs at dispersed localities of the Polish lowland, and much more often at lower altitudes in mountains and on southern highlands. Recently, two new localities of this species were discovered near Radom, in the valleys of little creeks. One of them is located near the village of Janiszew, in wet meadow (the Holcus lanatus-Polygonum bistorta community, the Calthion palustris alliance). The other one is located near the village of Trablice in the tall herb meadow (the Geranio-Filipenduletum association, the Filipendulo-Petasition alliance). The preservation of the Gladiolus' population within the said localities requires active protection by regular, late mowing and inhibition of the succession by cutting the trees and bushes.
The analysis of spatial structure of Iris sibirica (Iridaceae) population on the station in Stanisławice near Bochnia (southern Poland). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica 7: 209–214. Kraków. PL ISSN 1640–629X. ABSTRACT: This paper contains the analysis of spatial horizontal structure of Iris sibirica L. population on the station in Stanisławice near Bochnia. The studied species growing in wet habitats belongs to rare, legal protected plants in Poland. The distribution of the individuals within all phytocenosis as well as on 100 m2 selected area is presented.
Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis was achieved in leaf base and ovary culture of the Croatian endemic Iris adriatica Trinajstić ex Mitić. Callus induction from leaf base explants occurred in the dark on three media with MS mineral solution containing 4.52 μM dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4.83 μM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 0.46 μM kinetin (Kin), 5% sucrose and 200 mg L-1 casein hydrolysate. The media differed only in vitamin and/or proline content. Calli from ovary culture were achieved on MS medium containing 45.25 μM 2,4-D. The mean percentage of callus induction from leaf base explants was 18.9%, with no significant differences between media, and 27.3% from ovary sections. All embryogenic calli were formed on MS media containing 0.45 μM 2,4-D, 4.44 μM benzyladenine (BA) and 0.49 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) under low light intensity (25 μE m-2s-1). Transfer of embryogenic calli to hormone-free medium enabled the development of mature somatic embryos on the surface of 6.0% of induced calli produced from leaf base explants and 4.0% of those from ovary sections. Genotype had the main effect on plant regeneration efficiency in Iris adriatica
Iris belongs to the Iridaceae family. It is one of the most important pharmaceutical and ornamental plants in the world. To assess the potyvirus incidence in natural resources of iris plants in Iran, Antigen Coated-Plate ELISA (ACP-ELISA) was performed on 490 symptomatic rhizomatous iris leaf samples, which detected the potyvirus in 36.7% of the samples. Genomic 3’ end of one mechanically non-transmitted potyvirus isolate, comprising a 3’ untranslated region (390 bp) and C-terminus of the coat protein (CP) gene (459 bp), was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which was ligated into pTG19-T vector. The nucleotide sequence of amplicons was compared with related sequences, using Blastn software available at NCBI GenBank, and showed the highest similarity with Iris severe mosaic virus (ISMV) isolates. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the CP C-terminus region was more than 83% identical with other ISMV isolates, therefore this isolate was designated as ISMV-Ir. This new ISMV isolate is closely related to the Chinese ISMV-PHz in phylogenetic analysis, based on the partial nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the CP region. This is the first report of ISMV occurrence on Iris spp. in Iran.
Properties of marginal population of Iris aphylla (Iridaceae) in the Biebrza National Park (north east Poland). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Polonica 10: 195–207. Kraków. PL ISSN 1640 629X. ABSTRACT: In the years 1997–2001 marginal population of Iris aphylla L. in the Biebrza National Park was investigated. The aims of study were to characterize population size, morphological traits, architecture, age structure of rhizomes and type of reproduction. During four years of observations fluctuations in numbers of rosettes (about 5–30%), significant differentiation in number of leaves in rosettes, size of leaves and height of flowering shoots were observed. Only 1.3%–2.7% of shoots flowered (without fruits). Positive significant relationship between morphological traits and length and age of rhizomes were noted.
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