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EN
It is well known fact that the foundation of modern computer science were laid by logicians. Logic is at the heart of computing. The development of contemporary logic and the problems of the foundations of mathematics were in close mutual interaction. We may ask why the concepts and theories developed out of philosophical motives before computers were even invented, prove so useful in the practice of computing. Three main programmes together with the constructivist approach are discussed and the impact on computer science is considered.
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Content available remote A Critique of Moderate Formalism
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EN
Moderate formalism is the view that all artworks which have aesthetic properties have formal aesthetic properties, and some but not all of those works also have non-formal aesthetic properties. Nick Zangwill develops this view in his Metaphysics of Beauty after having argued against its alternatives – extreme formalism and anti-formalism. This article reviews his arguments against the rivals of moderate formalism, and argues that the rejection of anti-formalism is unjustified. Zangwill does not succeed in proving that the broadly determined (context-determined) properties of artworks are in some cases irrelevant to their aesthetic properties – and following that, interpretation and assessment. A historical argument presented here shows how aesthetic properties of every work must partly supervene on this work’s contextual properties. In particular, this disproves Zangwill’s claim that epistemological matters are unessential in determining the artwork’s properties, and exposes some problems his account has with explaining relations between nonaesthetic and aesthetic properties.
EN
This article aims to elucidate the evolution of Socialist Realism, the central art-theoretical term of the period 1945-1980, as it appears in the weekly periodical 'Literatura un Maksla' ('Literature and Art', 1945-1990). The doctrine of Socialist Realism was proclaimed as the only permitted one during the All-Soviet Union Writers' Congress in 1934 and inculcated in the newly occupied territories, including Latvia, after 1945. It can be partly interpreted as a continuation of the old European traditions in art theory. 19th-century Realism was one of the central building-blocks of this doctrine but one should note also the very idea of art as a theoretically grounded activity that has to represent reality. As the ancient theory of art as representation did never mean precise copying but a kind of idealisation that became heavily dependant on classical models studied in European art academies, the doctrine of Socialist Realism inherited this basic idea of academic theory that art can be taught and artists' professional skill is essential. The most paradoxical conclusion to be drawn from this study - critics had no other criteria, except their intuition and feeling, to decide whether an artwork is 'right' or 'wrong' from the viewpoint of Socialist Realism. Nobody, of course, has been able to explain, when and how exactly an innovative feature that might enrich Socialist Realism turns into contestable deviation from its supposedly 'objective', 'professional', 'ideologically true' course. It is possible to assume that the ongoing extension of the notion of Socialist Realism was a simple reaction to the evolution of artistic practice. At the same time, it is not provable that situation in art forced to expand the notion's boundaries against the authors' true conviction. The term of Socialist Realism can be surely metaphorically compared to an empty shell whose ever-changing content deserves to be studied in the wider context of Western art-theoretical thought.
EN
The objective of the paper is to point at the superficial character of the contemporary sociology and the culture oriented trends in the research of the interliterariness. It has been very often neglected that the object of the literature research is the beauty of literature, as that which causes the changes in the development. There was a Russian-Slovak (and structuralist) chapter in the history of interliterariness. At present it lives as a whole in the world but its findings have been utilized differently. Unfortunately, it appears that the theses of the Russian-Slovak school have been exploited for the utilitarian goals. Instead of the aesthetic essence of a phenomenon in its historical form, which was Durisin's intention, the models of literature subjugated to a cultural interest has become an objective of the research of interliterariness. The paper is also devoted to the various forms in which Durisin is present in the contemporary theory of interliterariness. In this connection, Franka Sinapoli maintains that the hermeneutic value of the history of interliterariness has been increased and that Durisin is the key personality of this encouraging occurrence. Mario Juan Valdés says that interliterariness is the only research project that proves the invalidity of Foucault's episteme theory. It is due to the fact that the hermeneutic value of the history of interliterariness increased after the Russian-Slovak period. The paper also focuses on Earl Miner's theory. Miner maintains that 'comparisons are more stimulating if they place real differences into mutual relationships'. Lotman proves that Durisin found out that a difference in the sign (of a structure) is equally relevant as the difference between the literature of Western Europe and that of Japan. Nowadays, even the thematic criticism (Harry Perkins) holds that literature is based on a difference (distance) of what is actually close. In spite of this, Durisin is conceived of as a founder of the transition of literary research from intraculturality to interculturality, i. e. as a theoretician of 'big differences'. Unfortunately, the idea that only a big difference is a difference, and that only a big difference is worth of examination, and that all minute differences are the forms of identity is so wide-spread that it creates a new situation in the theory of interliterariness in the form of a return to the big literatures, to the big literary phenomena. This idea is dangerous to the Slovak literature, to the Slavonic interliterary community, to the Czecho-Slovak interliterary community, and, generally, to interliterary communities which are a form of existence of the world literature.
EN
The paper addresses the tension between Badiou’s claim that his theory of the subject must be considered first of all as a ‘formal’ theory, and a certain genealogical history of his notion of the subject. In the latter case, it seems that a very specific political experience has played a crucial role (at least) for Badiou in his early conception of the subject. More particularly, the paper addresses this tension from an ethical perspective. As for the claim repeatedly made in his work, one can identify an implicitly ethical disposition in the formalization itself. At the same time, there are several formulations in his writings that seem to exceed the formal level. The paper examines four concepts or formulations appearing in his three main books (Theory of the Subject, Being and Event, Logics of Worlds) that seem to express a more or less explicit ethical dimension, namely his theory of affects, the principle ‘to decide the undecidable’, the contrast between ‘fidelity’ and ‘confidence’ and Badiou’s answer to the question What is it to live? The paper’s aim is to pinpoint the difference between the ethical stance implied in the formal description of Badiou’s theory of the subject and an explicit ‘ethics of the subject’. The author’s hypothesis is that the latter embodies a dimension that remains tacit in the formal expression of the subject’s ‘household’ alone: Badiou’s ubjectivity itself.
EN
The paper sheds light on the way of the motif of universalism has been articulated in some philosophical conceptions. While within the Kantian tradition universalism is related to the formalism, the material value ethics aims at establishing contextual ('material') a priori, which opens up already a hierarchic order on emotional level. In the last three decades of the 20th century, however, we witnessed an attempt of a new formal and universalistic conception of the grounds of ethics, especially in the discursive ethics of J. Habermas. The contextual questions concerning the meanings of values were also reformulated in various conceptions of the ecological ethics. In the latter the nature, and living 'non-human' creatures were included into the sphere of the ethically and morally relevant. The conception of discursive ethics is considered as a reasonably grounded one. In the controversy between biocentrism and anthropocentrism it plays the role of 'methodological' and 'purified' anthropocentrism.
ARS
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2013
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tom 46
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nr 1
86 -93
EN
Considering the impact of Zimmermann's aesthetics on the Wiener Schule der Kunstgeschichte and the influence of Riegl's art history on the 20th century art theory, the relation between philosophical aesthetics and art history is a potent theme. The study focuses on two questions: firstly, what is the place of the aesthetic dimension in Riegl's art history and how does it differ from Zimmermann's aesthetics? Secondly, how did Zimmermann's formalist aesthetic influence Riegl's analysis of the visual work of art?
EN
Classic expression theory identified the emotional content of works of art with the feelings of the artists and the recipients. This content thus appeared to be external to the work itself. Consequently, formalism declared it to be irrelevant to a work’s value. A way out of this predicament – one which the Polish aesthetician Henryk Elzenberg (1887–1967) was among the first to propose – was suggested by the idea that physical, sensory objects can themselves possess emotional qualities. Thanks to Bouwsma and Beardsley, this concept – of expressiveness as a quality – became common in Anglo-American aesthetics from the 1950s onwards. At the same time, these authors demanded that the term ‘expression’ be expunged from the language of aesthetics. But the widespread tendency to conceptualize the emotional content of art in terms of the expression of a certain subject (most often the artist) still requires some explanation – interpretation, rather than negation. One interpretation construes the expressiveness of works of art in terms of the expression of a fictitious subject, the ‘work’s persona’, conceived by Elzenberg in the 1950s and 1960s. This article discusses his concept and explains some of its more complex aspects, before addressing the emergence of a very similar concept within Anglo-American aesthetics. This concept was gradually elaborated in the 1970s and 1980s, but only in the 1990s did it become more fully developed and widely discussed. Published in the Archive Documents and Articles section together with two translated studies by Elzenberg: Emotional Colouring as an Aesthetic Phenomenon and Non-aesthetic and Aesthetic Expression.
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Content available remote CUBISM: ART AND PHILOSOPHY
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ESPES
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2018
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tom 7
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nr 1
30 – 37
EN
In this paper I argue that the development of cubism by Picasso and Braque at the beginning of the twentieth century can be illuminated by consideration of long-running philosophical debates concerning perceptual realism, in particular by Locke’s (1689) distinction between primary and secondary properties, and Kant’s (1781) empirical realism. Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (1920), Picasso’s dealer and early authority on cubism, interpreted Picasso and Braque as Kantian in their approach. I reject his influential interpretation, but propose a more plausible, Kantian reading of cubism.
EN
Drawing on examples of works of art by very diverse artists as Fra Angelico, Vermeer, Lucebert, De Bruyckere, and Moreau, The author aims to show that the specific ways in which artworks yield aesthetic experiences cannot be properly understood without recourse to the peculiar (and all too often neglected) presence of matter in the work of art. In this paper he sketches the contours of what a ‘matterist’ aesthetic fundamentally needs to involve. Unlike ‘significant form’ (Bell & Fry), matter in art is necessarily related to presence, finitude and contingency. Touching matter resists communication through determinate concepts. It constrains the production and receptivity of beauty and coherent meaning, and not so much addresses our faculty of understanding as it touches and stimulates our imagination and our ‘soulflesh’, i.e., what Lyotard calls l’âme-chair. This ‘passibility’ to touching matter (which is not passive) neither presupposes nor procures any dialectic reinstalling of transcendental subjectivity, and resists appropriation by argumentative rationality and rhetoric. On the contrary, it points to a path that necessarily lies always before us: the path out of techno-science’s obsession with consensus, information and superficial entertainment towards communality in and through (aesthetic) affects, which testify to our inevitable human finitude.
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Content available remote "Roman Jakobson. Formalismus Forever". Proč?
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EN
The author analyzes in detail the way in which Roman Jakobson (1896–1982) presented Russian Formalism in his 1935 Brno lectures, and points out the important role Jakobson had in later interpretations of Formalism and the Prague School, particularly Victor Erlich’s Russian Formalism (1955).
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