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Research concerning mindreading has dealt extensively with its (in) dependence on executive functions. However, surprisingly few studies focused on direct relationship of mindreading with intelligence, although it has been proposed that the high level mindreading in older children and adults is dependent on general cognitive skills. In the study two advanced mindreading tests were employed and data about participants’ verbal abilities were obtained. There was no significant correlation of verbal ability and memory with any of the mindreading tasks. Our results demonstrate a lack of significant linear relationship of mindreading with the intelligence domains, language and memory as well as support the argument that mindreading exists as a specific independent cognitive domain.
The author presents hypotheses concerning evolutionary factors responsible for the evolvement of imagination and its adaptive functions. Pleistocene was pointed as the environment for evolutionary adaptability in which it was possible for imagination to evolve as a result of certain phenomena which occurred at that time and which were important for the evolution of man. These included: creation and use of first tools, emergence of the hunting-gathering society, migration of hominid from Africa to other continents and development of social relations with a special emphasis on cooperation. It has been concluded that these phenomena could have constituted the selection factors which determined the evolution of imagination.
One of the well described aspects of the electrophysiology of sleep is related to the organization of neural systems in synchronized oscillations. Beside the general aspects of these oscillations there is increasing evidence for the existence of some individual-specific traits, which can be quantified by the individual topographic and spectral fingerprints of sleep-EEG. Individual fingerprints of human sleep-EEG are characterized by remarkable stability, bidirectional relationship with neural plasticity and definiteness by neural connectivity. Given the latter characteristic, these fingerprints could play an important role in research work aiming to reveal the neurobiological bases of psychological differences. Accumulating evidence supports the pertinence of this approach. Correlations of sleep-dependent slow wave activity with memory and executive functions were found, while sleep spindling was shown to have a complex relationship with cognitive performance. This relationship may shed light on the neurobiological bases of general mental ability or intelligence. Some preliminary data supporting the correlation between sleep-EEG and the affective traits of human subjects strengthen the differential psychological relevance of sleep-EEG activity. Given the fact that individual functional neuroanatomy is a major factor that shapes sleep-EEG oscillations, the latter reflect the actual state of synaptic infrastructure. However, by facilitating plastic processes neural oscillations also open the door to the efficient and adaptive reorganization of neural connectivity.
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