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Content available remote Mimicking the morphology of long bone
The aim of this work was to mimic the stratified structure of the median region of long bones. Starting from this desideratum, more COLL/HA composite materials with different morphology were synthesized and characterized, each of these materials mimicking one layer of long bone (endo- and periosteum, compact and cancellous bony tissue). Stratified bone grafts were obtained by assembling these layers; the obtained grafts were similar to the median region of long bones. Even though, natural bones have a more complex microstructure, this is a pioneering work since for the first time a stratified COLL/HA composite material similar to bone was produced. [...]
Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an inherited tooth disorder with widely varying phenotypes. The aim of this study was to determine the microhardness and microstructure characteristics of the enamel in AI teeth. The AI phenotypes examined were hypoplastic (pitted and smooth form), hypomaturated, and hypocalcified. Six AI patients were diagnosed according to clinical characteristics. The microhardness of the enamel was measured on axial cuts of AI teeth acquired from the patients. The measurements were done on several sites from the enamel surface towards the dentine-enamel junction using the Vickers scale. Values of microhardness were compared to corresponding control teeth. The microstructure of AI enamel types was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The values of microhardness in pitted hypoplastic AI samples were, on average, lower compared to the control enamel and dropped markedly towards the dentine-enamel junction. The smooth hypoplastic enamel was not only extremely thin but also much softer than control enamel. The values for hypomaturated AI fluctuated, but the palatal sites were markedly softer than in the control tooth. Hypocalcified enamel was the softest, with values resembling those of dentin. Microstructural changes varied from altered orientation of enamel prisms in pitted hypoplastic AI to lack of normal prismatic structure and severe porosity in hypocalcified AI. The present results suggest different microhardness profiles and microstructures in each phenotype. Variations among phenotypes are expected with larger case selection in this genetically heterogeneous disease.
The purpose of this work was to find and investigate a correlation between the carbonate ion content in crystalline lattice and defect structure, and solubility of the materials; finally, to prepare the materials under study for in vitro tests. Various techniques, such as XRD, FTIR, TEM, FESEM/EDX, TG/DTA, AES (ICP), wet chemical analysis, Ca-ionometry, microvolumetric analysis of evolved CO2, BET adsorption, were applied to determine the efficiency of carbonate substitution, and to quantify the elemental composition, as well as to characterize the structure of the carbonated hydroxyapatite and the site(s) of carbonate substitution,. It was shown that AB-type substitution prevails over other types with the carbonate content increase. According to in vitro tests, the bioactivity of the samples is correlated with the carbonate content in carbonate-doped hydroxyapatite due to accumulation of defects in carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. [...]
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