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Content available Empatia w służbie ludzkości
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Book review: Frans de Waal, Wiek empatii. Jak natura uczy nas życzliwości, tłum. Ł. Lamża, Copernicus Center Press, Kraków 2019, ss. 380.
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Communication process allows people to receive and send messages through verbal and nonverbal resources which play an important role in healthy interpersonal acts. While verbal communication has been the subject of many studies, the present study aims to focus mainly on the nonverbal aspect that is greeting gestures. In this article we shall analyze which greeting gesture, that is widely used across different cultures may evoke a feeling of empathy and thus build peaceful interactions so needed in human communication nowadays.
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Content available Factors influencing nurse’s empathy
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Aim Empathy is one of the widely appreciated qualities of a nurse. The benefit of this phenomenon is not only observed in the direct relationship with a patient but also in many other nurse’s relationships including the patient’s family, staff members, and superiors. The aim of this study was to analyze factors influencing nurse’s empathy. Material and methods The study was conducted in a group of 199 nurses working within the district of Gryfice in the Western Pomeranian Voivodeship. The study was carried out using a diagnostic poll method with the standardized Questionnaire of the Emphatic Understanding of Other People (KRE) and an own questionnaire. Results Studies have shown that only a small group of nurses had a high level of empathy (14.0%). There was a statistically significant correlation between the level of empathy among nurses and sociodemographic variables (age, place of residence) as well as reasons for the choice of the profession. Conclusions In the study group, nurses were mainly characterized by a low level of empathy even though they identified their attitude with sympathy for patients. According to my own research, nurses with longer work experience and the ones who live in small towns and villages show the greatest empathy. In addition, the important factors affecting the level of empathy are the choice of the profession because of its attractiveness and because of the willingness to help others.
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Introduction: Problems of families with autism are generally not visible or manifested, but without support, they become economically and educationally inefficient. Purpose: To assess the degree of empathic understanding of the child and the degree of emotional control by parents. Materials and methods: The study included 30 families from Poland, 25 from Belarus and 28 from France. We used Empathy Understanding Others questionnaire (KRE) and The Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS). Results: The most common difficulty reported in the care of a child was gaining his/her independence (66.7% in Poland, 84% in Belarus, 78.6% in France). Parents from Poland more often (26.7%) than others (12% in Belarus, 3.6% in France) pointed out that the disability of a child caused that their friends turned their back to them. 40% of parents from Poland, 60% from Belarus and 57.1% from France claimed that the spouses accept the disability of the child. The disability induced in parents mainly fatigue (76.7% from Poland, 44% from Belarus, 71.4% from France). The level of empathy in Polish (64.2 ± 6.2) and French parents (64.8 ± 11.6) was almost identical, and the highest was among Belarusian parents (70.3 ± 8.3). Overall rate of CECS of the surveyed parents was at the average level (from Poland 47.4 ± 4.9; from Belarus 44.8 ± 6.1, from France 48.1 ± 6.0). Conclusions: Nurses evaluated their own preparation for educational activities usually very low. In the majority they would not want to take up the difficult role of educators of parents of autistic children. Due to a potential contact of a nurse with a child with autism and the child’s family, it is advisable to extend the knowledge of nurses in the care of a child with autism.
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Objectives: The present study was designed to examine the links between empathy, emotional labor (both surface and deep acting), and emotional exhaustion as well as determine if emotional labor mediates the relationship between empathy and emotional exhaustion in teachers. It was assumed that emotional labor can take two opposite directions (positive mood induction and negative mood induction). Thus, the additional aim of the study was to analyze the mediating role of mood regulation strategies in the relationship between empathy and emotional exhaustion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 168 teachers from Łódź and its surroundings completed a set of questionnaires: Emotional Labor Scale; Mood Regulation Scales, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Empathic Sensitivity Scale. Results: The results provided mixed support for the hypotheses indicating that both types of emotional labor, negative mood induction and emotional exhaustion were positively intercorrelated. Moreover, deep acting was a significant mediator in the relationship between empathy and emotional exhaustion. The analyzed link was also mediated by negative mood induction, whereas positive mood induction did not emerge as a significant mediator. Conclusions: The study provided insight into the role of empathy and emotional labor in the development of teacher burnout. It also confirmed that deep acting and negative mood induction mediate the relationship between empathy and emotional exhaustion in teachers.
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There can be supposed that some personal traits can make preconditions in choosing the professional orientation, so altruism and empathy expressiveness also could, despite the fact that their expressiveness can change depending from age, what also was observed in this study. The aim of the research is to study the connection between altruism and empathy expressiveness particularities in persons, who work in different professional orientation. The study selection (N = 125) consisted of working-age men (M = 35,19; SD = 10,918) and women (M = 38,98; SD = 12,611). In the study are used the following methods: The Self-Report Altruism scale, SRA (Rushton, Chrisjohn, Fekken 1981), Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale, BEES (Mehrabian, Epstein 1997). In the research found that the correlation between altruism and empathy expressiveness is significant in profession group that is based on person ñ person relationships. This study allows to draw parallels with other empathy and altruism researches, and also is observed the link between phenomenaís and their relationship with the studied professional orientations.
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The aim of this study was to show the differences between groups of medical, law and psychology students in terms of empathy and psychopathy, as well as to show whether there are relationships between these variables in the studied groups. The study involved 70 female and 50 male students, constituting three equal groups of 40 people each, studying Medicine, Law and Psychology respectively. Two standardized tools were used in the study: the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity (IRI) by M.H Davis and the Polish adaptation of I. Pilch and her team's Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), the original version of which was developed by Patrick, Fowles and Krueger, as well as a specially designed sociodemographic questionnaire. The study showed an inverse relationship between empathy and psychopathy and that there were differences in both empathy and psychopathy levels between different groups of students. Law students had lower levels of empathy in two di mensions according to the IRI than medical and psychology students. When analyzing the severity of some psychopathic traits and the overall psychopathy score according to TriPM, it was found that law students had the highest levels in the overall psychopathy score and meanness, but no statistically significant differences were observed in other TriPM variables between the groups studied. Law students had the lowest empathy scores of the groups studied, and medical students had slightly lower empathy scores than psychology students. It was also shown that law students had the highest overall psychopathy score of the three groups studied. Negative correlational relationships between empathy and psychopathy were observed in medical and law students – indicating that higher levels of empathy are associated with lower levels of psychopathy.
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What does being moral mean? On one hand people may justify mercy killing as sparing omeone’s suffering, but on the other hand they are still, in-fact, taking another’s life. According to Lind’s theory of moral competence (2008), it is based on consistent utilization of moral principles. Although common sense tells us that people’s affective states and levels of empathy may explain the differences, there is little direct evidence. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by examining the relative contribution of empathy and affective state to moral competence. Results of the study revealed that although perspective taking and negative affective state were both significant predictors of moral competence, perspective taking was a stronger contributor. This suggests that the next time you deliberate over a moral dilemma (e.g., euthanasia), you should try understanding another person’s perspective rather than feeling empathy to make the best moral judgment.
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Prison service employees belong to a professional group that is susceptible to a quick professional burnout. They spend a few hours per day in a limited space with the same individuals – the co-workers and the prisoners. While providing support to the latter ones, they frequently do not see the results of their own work. Moreover, when staying in a close contact, especially the direct one, with the socially maladjusted persons – the so-called challenging client, the process of their desensitization is triggered. Thus, the aim of the author’s own research was to define the level of emotional and cognitive empathy as well as the severity of the occupational burnout of penitentiary educators and security officers in penal institutions. Therefore the author’s own research was conducted by applying a diagnostic survey method using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) in order to determine the extent to which the surveyed individuals are professionally burned out.. Moreover, the Polish version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index was used to provide the answer to the question regarding the level of empathy of the respondents. The study involved seventy (70) officers of the Prison Service from four penitentiary units of the District Inspectorate of Prison Service in Bialystok and Lublin, half of whom were penitentiary educators.
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Content available Wyobraźnia, empatia i twórcze pisanie
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The author analyzes the exercises in Polish creative writing guides, involving imagination, sensitivity and empathy. The article is an attempt to answer the question: what is the role of exercise in the stimulation of the writing process?
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The article describes the relational-interdependent self-construal scale, as well as its psychometric characteristics and psychological correlates. It is the measure, which has been adapted to Polish conditions. The relational-interdependent self-construal scale measures individual differences in the tendency to include close others in the self. The measure was first introduced by Cross, Bacon & Morris (2000). The items were created on the basis of the definition of relationalinterdependent self-construal and earlier studies. 1579 people participated in the studies aimed at conducting exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis. Results indicate that the relational-interdependent self-construal scale consists of 9 items that form one factor. The measure is reliable and valid. There are gender differences in relational self-construal – women obtain higher scores. The relational- interdependent self-construal scale is positively associated with empathy (especially empathic concern and perspective taking), agreeableness (and to some extent with extraversion), communal values (those important for interpersonal relations, mostly with security, universalism, conformity and benevolence), and with satisfaction with romantic relationship. Relational-interdependent self-construal is not significantly associated with global self-esteem.
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When we see a child crying, the urge to help him and to comfort him comes to us spontaneously. We understand what he is experiencing, and feel in us something of his sadness, his distress: this is what we call empathy. This sense of the other is the fruit of our evolutionary history and is hardwired in our biology. Empathy has interested a lot of thinkers and in particular the Scottish philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment such as Adam Smith or Hume. More recently, the philosophers Robert Gordon (St Louis, Missouri) and Alvin Goldman (Tuscon, Arizona) proposed the theory of simulation according to which when we understand the other, we simulate the other’s point of view and we use this prospective to understand the other and predict his behavior. The French neuropscyhologist Jean Decety adopted this point of view. He specifies that the empathy is the capacity to mentally simulate the subjectivity of the other, to put ourselves in the shoes of another: it lies on biological systems.
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In the present article there has been described a connection between three dimensional model of empathy and attachment styles in close relationships of young adults. The study was conducted in a group of 120 people (60 women, 60 men; 38 cohabitant pairs, 22 marriages). The participants fi lled in the following questionnaires: The Scale of Empathic Sensitiveness, which measures empathic concern, personal distress and perspective taking, and The Questionnaire of Attachment Styles, which measures the following styles: the secure style, the anxious-ambivalent style and the avoidant style. The results indicate that there exists a connection between empathy and attachment styles. The secure style correlates positively with perspective taking, the anxious-ambivalent style correlates positively with empathic concern and personal distress, the avoidant style correlates positively with personal distress and negatively with perspective taking. The study revealed that women achieved higher scores on empathic concern and personal distress than men did, but no sex diff erences in manifested attachment styles were observed. Moreover, the type of relationship (marriage vs. cohabitation) diff erentiated scores on the anxious-ambivalent style and personal distress dimension, where cohabitants scored higher.
PL
W niniejszym artykule opisano związek między trójwymiarowym modelem empatii a stylami przywiązania w bliskich związkach młodych dorosłych. W badaniu wzięło udział 120 osób (60 kobiet i 60 mężczyzn; 38 związków kohabitacyjnych i 22 związki małżeńskie). Uczestnicy badania wypełnili następujące kwestionariusze: Skalę Wrażliwości Empatycznej (SWE) mierzącą empatyczną troskę, osobistą przykrość i przyjmowanie perspektywy oraz Kwestionariusz Stylów Przywiązaniowych (KSP) mierzący przynależność do jednego ze stylów: bezpiecznego, lękowo-ambiwalentnego oraz unikowego. Wyniki badania wskazują istnienie związku między empatią a stylami przywiązania. Styl bezpieczny dodatnio koreluje z wymiarem przyjmowania perspektywy, styl lękowo-ambiwalentny dodatnio koreluje z wymiarem empatycznej troski i osobistej przykrości, a styl unikowy koreluje dodatnio z osobistą przykrością i ujemnie koreluje z przyjmowaniem perspektywy. Badania wykazały następujące różnice płciowe: wyższe wyniki w wymiarach empatycznej troski i osobistej przykrości osiągnęły kobiety aniżeli mężczyźni. Nie stwierdzono różnic płciowychw przejawianych stylach przywiązaniowych. Ponadto rodzaj związku (małżeństwo vs. kohabitacja) różnicował wyniki w stylu lękowo-ambiwalentnym oraz w wymiarze osobistej przykrości, w których kohabitanci uzyskali wyższe wyniki.
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Content available remote Empatia učitel'ov a učiteliek : prierezová štúdia
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Objectives. The goal of this descriptive study is to examine empathy among Slovak pre-service and in-service teachers based on Baron-Cohen‘s concept, to analyse the differences between primary and secondary school teachers across a career cycle, and to analyse correlations between teachers, empathy and professional personality characteristics. Sample and setting. The research sample consisted of pre-service and in-service teachers from Slovakia (N = 508, Mage = 26,44, 92% were females). Research questions. What is the teachers, empathy quotient compared to general population? What are the differences between primary and secondary teachers across the career cycle? How is teacher, s empathy related to other professional personality characteristics? Statistical analysis. The data were analysed in SPSS and AMOS software using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, 2x2 ANOVA and confirmatory factor analysis. Results. Both pre-service and in-service teachers scored higher in empathy than reported for general adult population. Women scored significantly higher than men, differences were found across career levels and teaching specialisations, however, not in their interaction. The empathy quotient appeared to correlate positively with social competences, mainly with sensitivity toward others and sociability. Based on the results the authors conclude that trainings of empathy and social skills should be implemented in teacher education. Study limitations. The results only relate to one theoretical concept of empathy. Similarly to other studies, a self-reported measure might be another limitating factor.
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The current system of training teachers of music is focused on the mastery of this particular system of theoretical knowledge, special skills and techniques. The success of a teacher professional musician depends largely on his personal characteristics: value systems, psychological culture, identity and so on. Therefore, along with ideological and training of future specialists, special importance is personal training music teachers, whose purpose is to develop professionally significant qualities of its humanistic orientation, psychological and educational culture, the ability to identify professional. The phenomenon of empathy as a factor in the effectiveness of pedagogical communication has not been the subject of special study. However, the ability of the teacher to empathy appears as one of the determining factors in establishing such a teacher relationships with the students that promote not only the success of their joint training activities through the formation of the participants communicate appropriate level of communication skills, but mainly the creation of conditions for full development of the future. The study of empathic abilities until recently mainly engaged researchers in social psychology and psychotherapy. In recent years, the phenomenon of empathy is considered as an important factor in overall professionalism. The author defines cognitive and emotional empathy. In creative activities emotional empathy is preferable, because it necessarily involves sympathy and compassion. The analysis of scientific literature on the empathy suggests that active teaching empathy is a significant quality professional educator that provides successful interpersonal interaction, which manifests itself in formed situations and dialogical communication, in a joint creative work of the teacher and pupils. One of the functions of an empathy teacher is to provide such assistance to the student in solving their problems that contribute to the development of musical abilities. Empathy is a profound and unmistakable perception of the inner world of another person, his hidden emotions and connotations, emotional consonance with his experiences, using the whole depth understanding of man his and his interests.
EN
The aim of the study was to assess self-reported individual differences in the use of the inner speech of adolescents with Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD) and in particular to answer the questions: Do adolescent with SCD have inner speech and what is the direction of this speech? Is this a monologue and internal dialogue, i.e., do they speak to themselves (internal monologue) or to other people (internal dialogue)? We tested 22 adolescents with SCD, diagnosed according to the DSM-5 criterion. The average age was 16.48 years, SD = 2.71. The youngest patient was 12 years old and the oldest was 19 years old. The modified version of the Puchalska-Wasyl Scale of Inner Speech was used for the study. The questionnaire was tailored to the capabilities of the persons with SCD and included questions about the occurrence of internal speech and the direction of this speech, that is, internal conversations to yourself (internal monologue) or to other people (internal dialogue). The patients participating in the experiment were informed in detail about the whole procedure and they or their parents, if they were under age, provided written consent for their participation in the experiment (according to the guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration, 2008). Statistical analysis showed that in adolescents with SCD there is a statistically significant relationship in the frequency of the monologue and internal dialogue. Persons who declared a more frequent occurrence of internal dialogue also declared more frequent occurrences of internal monologue, which means that they had the general ability for inner speech. A comparison of the direction of inner speech, that is the internal monologue and internal dialogue has shown that during inner speech they more often use internal dialogue than internal monologue. It was found that in adolescents with SCD, inner speech is present, and it manifests itself in the form of an internal monologue and internal dialogue. However, far more often do they use internal dialogue than internal monologue.
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Content available remote Negative arousability and relationship satisfaction: The mediating role of empathy
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Temperamental traits and empathy are both associated with emotional regulation; they thus shape both the quality of an individual’s life and the functioning of his or her social relationships. However, the mediating effects of emotional empathy in the relationship between temperamental characteristics and relationship satisfaction have not been closely analyzed and therefore require further study. This study examined the effects of temperamental arousability – global negative arousability and its components (fear, sadness, discomfort, frustration) – on emotional empathy and, consequently, on relationship satisfaction. One hundred and fifty young adults (104 women, 46 men) aged 20 to 35 participated in the study. The participants had been in romantic relationships for at least six months. The study used a sociodemographic survey and a set of questionnaires which included the Adult Temperament Questionnaire – Short Form, the Empathic Sensitiveness Scale and the RELAT Questionnaire. The results showed that empathic concern fully mediated the relationship between global negative arousability and relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, the effects of fear and sadness on relationship satisfaction were fully mediated by empathic concern and personal distress. Additionally, personal distress fully mediated the relationship between discomfort and relationship satisfaction. Neither empathic concern nor personal distress were mediators in the relationship between frustration and relationship satisfaction. It can therefore be concluded that although partners who exhibit higher global negative arousability report lower relationship satisfaction, they might become more satisfied when being more compassionate and caring towards others.
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Health Champions are a growing component within the British public health workforce and their roles are now emphasised within the coalition’s Government’s public health strategy. However, there is the need for further exploration of the way in which Health Champions use interpersonal communication within their roles. This paper reports on the findings from a mixed method evaluation of one Health Champion programme in North East England. A key finding was the way in which Health Champions used circles of influence to communicate health knowledge and to try to achieve behaviour change, starting with themselves in the centre of their circle and then moving outwards to influence others such as family, friends and colleagues through their social networks. The paper argues that health champions act as healthy role models within their own circles of influence to successfully communicate health knowledge to those around them.
PL
The article is a part of a more extensive linguistic project exploring the concept of ‘empathy’ and its exponents in the present-day Polish (Falkowska 2012, 2017, 2018). The analysis is based on a corpus compiled out of Polish media texts concerning the tragic Nanga Parbat expedition (January 2018). Selected Internet posts and social media comments have also been included. My focus is on empathy understood along the lines set by Kuno (1987), i.e. the speaker’s identification with one of the scene’s participants. The paper aims at depicting the linguistic means that are applied in order to communicate the speaker’s empathy towards a scene participant. The study employs Langacker’s Cognitive Grammar model (1987, 2009) and the cognitive discourse analysis framework (Hart 2014), with special reference to the notions of empathy, empathy hierarchy and point of view.
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Content available Il Logos della Croce
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The existential story of Edith Stein is characterized by the pursuit of truth and by placing herself at its service. Starting from the philosophical discourse she reaches the word of the cross, the Logos of the analogy that relates separate determinations. Going through the various stations of her Way of the Cross in order to achieve her union with the Beloved, Edith Stein realizes the commandment of love: donate life to “save” forever every existence.
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