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The defensive character of war doctrine, preferring to conduct operations by the armed forces on their own territory, favours taking advantage of civilian terrain infrastructure resources in the forces logistic support process. However, in order to ensure rational taking advantage of these resources requires fulfilling, according to the author, two basic conditions. Firstly, these resources in peacetime have to be prepared in a strictly directed way (e.g. fulfilling the armed forces expectations). Secondly, there must exist a system of these resources efficient distribution for fighting forces. In the article the author presents the conception to prepare terrain civilian infrastructure resources in peacetime, distributed in wartime for the armed forces and he also suggests the ways to distribute these resources for the fighting forces.
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Content available remote Żywotność wojskowych systemów logistycznych w walce i operacji
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EN
In contemporary conditions to conduct combat and operational activities, in the encounter with the enemy equipped with modem means of destruction, it is not possible to avoid losses in personnel, ordinance and military equipment and also in combat and material means. These losses will appear not only among troops but also in logistic potential. The size and kind of these losses in logistic units and equipment will determine the process of providing supplies and rendering special and economic services in support of fighting troops and in this way of their combat capabilities. It is not difficult to notice that military logistic systems ought to have an appropriate service life so that it would prevent destructive counteractions of the enemy. Taking this into regard, the author of the article presents the ways to increase the service life of military logistic systems in combat and operation.
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Content available remote Zarządzanie kosztami zorientowane na procesy
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PL
Artykuł dotyczy systemu zarządzania kosztami, który jest zorientowany na procesy gospodarcze w przedsiębiorstwie. Zarządzanie kosztami jest ważnym elementem systemu controllingu. Procesowe zarządzanie kosztami jest działaniami podejmowanymi przez menedżerów w zakresie planowania i kontroli dla ciągłej redukcji kosztów. Centralnym elementem tej koncepcji jest rachunek kosztów działań.
EN
The paper deals with cost management system, which is oriented to economic processes in company. Cost management is an important component of controlling system. Process cost management is the actions menageries undertake to plan and controi for continuously cost reduction. Activity Based costing is a central element of the concept.
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Quality control generally requires data of higher quality to quantify the error in any measured quantity. The following work shows that the Proszyhski Reliability Criterion (PRC) is fulfilled if the measurement variance is greater than its prediction function based on the remaining observations. The partial derivatives with respect to the parameters of the residuals' equations are taking the role of the observations within the system. Therefore the prediction variance can be measured. If the prediction function is bounded then a reliable observational system (i.e. each observation has fulfilled the PRC) can be achieved.
EN
NATO crisis response operations (operations outside Article 5 of the Washington Treaty) include: peace support operations, evacuation operations, support operations in natural disasters and humanitarian aid, search and rescue operations, operations with the use of military force or the demonstration of its use. They can be carried out by NATO, the European Union and the United Nations. The military strategy of Poland (2004) imposes the obligation to have expeditionary forces capable of taking action in crisis response operations outside the country. Therefore, it is clear that the solutions for the efficient organization of these forces ’ logistic support are also necessary. The level of support must be appropriate to today's standards, but on acceptable level of costs. Logistics support of Polish Military Contingents (PMC) in crisis response operations outside the country include: materials support (supply delivery, economic and living services and other services), technical support (equipment maintenance, repair of armament and military equipment, supply of technical materials, technical supervision, metrology support and other) as well as transport provision (in relation country - PMC and in area of operations). In addition, under the logistics support there are also implemented other projects such as e.g. the liquidation of loss and damage, funeral services, etc. Determinants of PMC logistics support in emergency response operations are the following: the nature of conducted operation and its level of intensity, size (composition) and the armament and military equipment; area, including the local logistics conditions and remoteness from the home country, the composition of international coalition conducting the mission and scope of a multinational logistics operation; specialization and the logistics role of PMC in the composition of multinational logistics; time (period) of mission and other conditions.
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Content available remote Intuicja i poznanie pozazmysłowe w procesie podejmowania decyzji
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EN
In the introduction the author states that mastering the art of decision taking, apart from the ability of providing useful information about the situation, requires also appropriate methods of solving problems connected with that situation. According to presented division of problems, the author distinguishes groups of solving methods matching them: program-mable methods, quasi-programmable methods, unprogrammable ones and procedures of intuition and extra sensory perception. The article presents a selection of theoretical considerations on intuition and extra sensory perception. Basing on literature, the author quotes a current operational definition of intuition and provides a definition of extra sensory perception. Basing on generalisations and conclusions presented in the article, the author sees the necessity to use intuition and extra sensory perception procedures in practice of command and decisions taken every day. Evaluating and mastering intuition and extra sensory perception abilities should be, according to the author, an important element of every educational programme in every institution and on every level, particularly in military schools. Conducting research by universities and academies, military in particular, on using intuition and extra sensory perception in management seems necessary, especially when three greatest world superpowers have already been carrying out such research.
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Content available remote Logistics and logistic management in crisis situations
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EN
The logistics of crisis situations is a new scientific specialization. Its precursors were: military logistics which had its origins in the US Navy at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries (forerunners: A.T.Mahan, G.C.Thorpe, H.E.Eccles) and civilian logistics which saw its first successes in the late 50's and 60's of the XX century (forerunners: O. Morgestern, American Marketing Association, Council of Logistics Management). However, the logistics of crisis situations arose at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries. Logistics (both military and civilian) owed and still owes its success primarily to a high standard of task completion for the recipient. These standards generally are presented in the form of 4 x „R” (sometimes this is also 5 x „R” or even a 7 x „R”), which stands for „right” time, „right” quality, „proper” amount and „right” place (also „appropriate” costs, „ appropriate” gains, „proper” condition) of supplies delivery and logistic services for the supported entity. In the armed forces, where the military logistics functions, the recipients (of supply and logistic services) are fighting troops (military units). In the economy, where civilian logistics functions, recipients of supplies and logistic services are customers operating in the open market. Whereas, in crisis situations, where the logistics of crisis situations functions, the customer (of supply and logistic services) is primarily an affected population.
PL
Artykuł jest poświęcony problematyce zabezpieczenia przedsiębiorstwa przed ryzykiem działalności. Przedstawiono rezerwy tworzone w rachunkowości jako instrument zabezpieczenia przed ryzykiem. Problem został ukazany z punktu widzenia zasad rachunkowości, w szczególności zasady ostrożności.
EN
The article treats of the subject of insuring company against the business activity risk. The reserves in the accounting as an instrument of the insurance against this risk were described. The subject was depicted in the reflection of accounting rules, especially security rule.
PL
Przedstawiono najistotniejsze informacje dotyczące sytuacji ekonomiczno-finansowej Elektrociepłowni Lublin-Wrotków w aktualnej konfiguracji technicznej oraz w określonych warunkach prawnych i rynkowych. Zaprezentowano podstawowe wielkości techniczne i ekonomiczne przed i po uruchomieniu bloku gazowo- parowego. Omówiono tematykę kształtowania taryf na wytwarzanie energii elektrycznej i ciepła. Ponadto wskazano na ważne w kontekście całokształtu działalności Spółki zagadnienie dotyczące spłaty kredytów i pożyczek zaciągniętych na budowę bloku gazowo-parowego.
EN
The article concentrates on the most significant information concerning present economic and financial situation of the Wrotków Heat and Power Generating Plant in Lublin within a current technical configuration and specific legal and market aspects. General technical and economic data before and after starting the gas and steam block have also been presented. The issue of shaping tarrifs on electricity and heat production has been discussed. Besides, another important point, in the context of the overall activity of the Company, was the issue concerning repayment of credits and loans incurred to raise the gas and steam block, which has also been discussed in the present article.
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Content available remote Intuicja a podejmowanie decyzji
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According to scientists (R. Sperry and R. Orstein) people use generally their left part of the brain, reaching merely 20% of their intelectual abilities. It is known, however, that only complementary and harmonious use of both parts of the brain (the left – analytical one and the right – creative, intuition one) may increase the effectiveness of intellectual work. The examples of Einstein and Madame Curie confirm that they were geniuses only because they were able to join the artist's mind (right part) with scientist's mind (left part). Taking these conditions into consideration the author suggests complementing the decision maker's knowledge to use the right – intuition (nor responsible for senses) part of the brain.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wieloletnią historię Elektrowni Szombierki (istniejącej od 1920 roku) i Elektrowni Miechowice (powstałej w czasie drugiej wojny światowej). Obie Elektrownie już w 1974 r. Zarządzeniem Naczelnego Dyrektora Zjednoczenia Energetyki w Warszawie połączono tworząc przedsiębiorstwo pod nazwą Zespół Elektrowni „Bytom”. Od 1993 roku obie Elektrownie wchodzą w skład jednoosobowej spółki skarbu państwa, która nosi nazwę „Zespół Elektrociepłowni Bytom SA".
EN
The paper presents many years’ history of the Power Plant Szombierki (existing since 1920) and the Power Plant Miechowice (established during the 2nd World War). These both Power Plants merged in 1974 creating thus the “BYTOM Group of Power Plants”. Since 1993 both Power Stations constitute a joint stock company, with a single stockholder (State Treasury) andthey operate under the name “BYTOM Group of Power and Heat Generating Plants” .
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