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EN
The article shows that the language taboo on pronouncing personal names, which is usually described as a phenomenon typical of archaic cultures, is also characteristic of the modern Russian language, where names of older relatives usually are replaced by words dad, mother, grandfather, grandmother, uncle and aunt. In the XVIII and XIX centuries in Russia there was a taboo on the use of names, patronymics and surnames of persons senior in civil or military rank. At present, it is preserved in the military sphere of communication, where it is forbidden to address by name or surname to senior in rank. The taboo phenomenon can also be an explanation of etiquette designation the respected interlocutor by Russian pronoun vy (ʻyouʼ pl.) instead of ty (ʻyouʼ sg.).
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This article is an attempt to explore how the framework of construction morphology may apply to the analysis of Yoruba names. Following this approach, we show that each Yoruba name is a unique construction involving semantic, syntactic and phonological properties. Hence, this discussion highlights that names constitute a form-meaning pair. Yoruba names may be grouped into categories as distinct constructions with unique SEM, SYN and PHON properties. More specifically, it is observed that PHON properties may include word initial vowel elision, syllable elision, vowel and consonant elongation while SYN features include processes of lexicalization of sentential forms. Furthermore, the article reveals that Yoruba names may show constructional patterns that are deviant from regular processes, observed by previous studies to occur in similar linguistic environments. These patterns, therefore, are part of the unique constructional property of Yoruba personal names in contradistinction to other word formation contexts.
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Content available Imiona mniejszości litewskiej w Polsce
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EN
The given names used by the Lithuanian minority in PolandThis article analyses the given names of members of the Lithuanian minority in Poland. It is based on a Lithuanian telephone directory issued in Puńsk in 1997, in which a significant number of personal names are recorded in the Lithuanian form. Their comparison with the corresponding data in two Polish telephone directories from a similar period revealed over two hundred “given name + surname” pairs in two language versions: Lithuanian and Polish. About eighty pairs in which the names differed in spelling and morphology have been extracted for analysis.In the analysis of given names, also Kazimierz Rymut’s name dictionary (1995) has been used to establish the frequency of selected names in the Suwalki region and beyond. The statistically significant higher turnout of names of Lithuanian origin in the Suwalki region than in the rest of Poland was confirmed in almost all cases. It was also established that the occurrence of Lithuanian given names in unassimilated form is more frequent there. The frequency of the given names which appear in the aforementioned Lithuanian telephone directory and on the lists of high school graduates in Puńsk from 1959–1995 was compared to the ranking lists of given names used in Poland and Lithuania. This enabled some observations concerning the choice of names by Polish Lithuanians.It appears that Lithuanian anthroponymy plays an important role in consolidating the Lithuanian minority in Poland, and that it can be viewed in terms of an in-group code. At the same time, the parallel use of two language versions of given names – Polish and Lithuanian – allows for the selection of the form depending on the communicative situation. Imiona mniejszości litewskiej w Polsce W artykule podjęto próbę analizy imion członków mniejszości litewskiej w Polsce. Bazą materiałową pracy jest wydana w 1997 roku w Puńsku litewska książka telefoniczna, w której antroponimy znacznej części abonentów zapisane zostały w postaci litewskiej. Porównując je z odpowiadającymi im danymi w dwóch polskich książkach telefonicznych ze zbliżonego okresu, uzyskano ponad dwieście par imię + nazwisko w dwóch wersjach językowych: litewskiej i polskiej, z których wyekscerpowano ok. 80 par imion różniących się grafią i morfologią.W analizie imion posłużono się też słownikiem imion K. Rymuta (1995), badając frekwencję wybranych imion na Suwalszczyźnie i poza nią. Potwierdzono istotną statystycznie wyższą frekwencję na Suwalszczyźnie prawie wszystkich imion pochodzenia litewskiego, a także częstsze występowanie tam imion litewskich w postaci niezasymilowanej do polszczyzny. Wykorzystując wspomnianą litewską książkę telefoniczną, spisy absolwentów liceum w Puńsku z lat 1959–1995 i listy rangowe frekwencji imion w Polsce i na Litwie, porównano też wybory imiennicze Litwinów mieszkających w Polsce, odnotowując podobieństwa do listy litewskiej.Jak stwierdzono, antroponimia litewska pełni istotną rolę konsolidującą mniejszość litewską w Polsce i stanowi swego rodzaju kod dla wtajemniczonych. Jednocześnie równoległe funkcjonowanie dwóch postaci językowych imienia – polskiej i litewskiej – pozwala na wybór postaci antroponimu zależnie od sytuacji komunikacyjnej.
EN
The aim of the paper is to present the problem of transmitting cultural-determined personal names in literatury translation. The study focuses on various groups of such lexems: personal names, which were created onthe base of the model: name + patronimicum + surname; diminutive names; meaning names; folkand historical names and personal names of intertextual relationships. The emphasis is put on imagination of the translator and creative individual approach to each lexical element and its function in the text. The very important thing is the perspective of recipients with a different cultural background.
Onomastica
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2020
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tom 64
107-120
EN
In the Middle Ages, several name-formation processes played a role in the creation of the anthroponyms in Hungarian. The main name-formation mechanisms were:1. Semantic name-formation. Within this mechanism, the anthroponym develops through the use of internal elements of the language in such a way that the anthroponymic meaning is created without any change in morphological structure. In Old Hungarian naming practices, the most frequent types of semantic name-formation were:a. metaphoric name-giving (e.g. farkas ʽfarkas’ [wolf] > anthroponym Farkas),b. metonymic name-giving (e.g. when an “instrument” of a profession becomes the name of the person practising the given profession; ökör ʽökör’ [ox] > anthroponym Ökör as the name of a butcher),c. semantic split: e.g. ethnonyms, names of professions, etc., often become anthroponyms without the use of any morphological tool (kovács ʽkovács’ [smith] > anthroponym Kovács).2. Morphematic construction. In the Old Hungarian period, several suffixes  contributed to the creation of anthroponyms, among which the most common ones were: -d(i) ~ -t(i), -s, -a/-e etc. This morphological solution was the most important tool for adapting foreign names in the Middle Ages: Petrus in Latin > Petr-i, Pet-e, Pet-i, Pet-es in Hungarian. 3. Syntagmatic construction. This process, through the combination of two existing lexemes, cre-ates an anthroponym composed of two constituents, in which both elements provide a certain information about the named person.In this essay I provide an overview of the typical name-formation processes characterising the for-mation of anthroponyms in Old Hungarian.
EN
The paper deals with anoikonyms derived from personal names by a suffix (the structure types Bartoš + -ka, Bartoš + -ovka, Bartoš + -ovec, Bartoš + -ovice etc.). The first part of the paper presents their onomastic characteristics: it pays attention to their word-forming structure, motivation, frequency, eventually productivity of certain structure types; also information on their geographic distribution is added. Selectively also those anoikonyms are presented which are hard to explain. The second part compares the onymic maps (maps of some structure types) with dialect maps (especially the maps of the so called bundles of isoglosses contained in the Czech Linguistic Atlas). Mutual interconnections of the onymic and dialect areas are explored.
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Content available remote Osobní jména v učebnicích matematiky
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EN
The article is based on the author’s thesis that was defended at the Faculty of Education of Masaryk University in Brno in 2013. The aim of the work was to analyze personal names from chosen textbooks of mathematics and compare them with popular names in years when the textbooks were published. At first the article presents goals of the work and written sources. Then the author analyzes personal names in selected schoolbooks which were published by publishing houses Fortuna and Prometheus, putting emphasis on the frequency of names, origin of names and hypocorictics. Finally, the author tries to understand why authors of textbooks have used those names. Then she compares the results with popular personal names.
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Content available remote Typizace ve jménech seriálových postav
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EN
The text focuses on the process by which the personal names of characters in literary texts become typified. The typification of anthroponyms belonging to salient literary character types in a given genre can be seen in the process of appellativization and the parodic imitation of such names. The typification of personal names is illustrated with examples of the personal names of characters appearing in Czech TV series, predominantly medical dramas, detective and crime series, family sitcoms and soap operas. An analysis of these personal names revealed connections between the genre or the character type on the one hand, and the typified personal name on the other hand. This conclusion was supported by the results of a questionnaire-based survey which determined whether viewers were aware of the existence of typified character names in Czech series and revealed how the choice of a name is influenced by the existence of a character type or a common stereotype.
EN
The article is devoted to the methods of nominal configuration in the Parish registry books form East Cuyavia and the Dobrzyn Land in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries (Aleksandrów Kujawski, Włocławek, Lipno, Rypin). There are several types of identifying elements in the registry books: first name, patronymic, last name, profession, function, social estate, place of origin or residence, religion, affiliation which are the components of the identifying formulas. They are discussed in the article and also the examples are mentioned.
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Content available remote Zachidnopolis'ki apeljativi, odnozvučni z vlasnimi imenami
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EN
The aim of this article is to analyse common nouns denoting people, animals and objects that occur in the Western Polissian dialects of the Ukrainian language and which are identical with personal names (first names) and/or their variations. It was found that some of these appellatives originate from the names of specific persons, gaining general popular use as such through certain (usually negative) character traits of that person. Other very popular and widely used names are given to beloved animals, while a less significant number of appellatives evolved through the process of folk etymology, when words of foreign origin were similar to real personal names.
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Acta onomastica
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2018
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tom 59
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nr 1
106-122
EN
The aim of the paper is a characteristics of the individual functional elements of the living personal names in the class of unmarried persons in Súš, a part of the town of Stará Turá and of analysis of living names according to the naming models. The high frequency of functional elements a first name, surname and family, 96.1% of which are family names with an anthropobase surname, reveals that the living name system in the class of unmarried persons is significantly dependent on the official naming system. However, they do not prevail over names that are identical to official names. The most frequent model is composed of functional elements of a hypocoristic form of first name and an official surname whose anthropobase is identical to an anthropobase of the family name and the name of the house. The second most common model consists of the hypocoristic form of a first name and a family name with an anthropobase of the surname.
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Content available remote Využitie antroponým v etnických vtipoch
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Acta onomastica
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2018
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tom 59
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nr 1
258-272
EN
The aim of the paper is to describe the functions of anthroponyms with an ethnic attribute in ethnic jokes. Based on the excerption of such anthroponyms from 404 Slovak and 507 American ethnic jokes and a subsequent analysis, we assign three specific functions to these proper names - formal, ethno-referential, and compositional function. The presence of an ethnic specific anthroponym turns a joke into an ethnic joke in the broadest sense and regardless of its topic. Moreover, these anthroponyms refer the recipient to a specific ethnic group with its typical as well as stereotypical features and characteristics. Finally, these expressions may take an active part in the creation of the punchline via a play on words.
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Content available remote Rodná jména jako předmět jazykové politiky v česko-slovenském srovnání
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EN
The paper deals with the regulation of personal names in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Based on data consisting of legal documents and on-line discussions, it focuses on two areas: (1) the historical development of the regulation and (2) its implementation. Employing the social force field model, the paper argues that despite partially independent development, the legal norms of both countries establish analogous social force fields. However, these fields may function in differing ways, as the norm authorities employ different types of codices.
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EN
The article explores the onomastic practices of medieval Bulgarians, focusing on the Second Bulgarian State, from the late 12th to the early 15th century. The collected evidence suggests that soon after their conversion to Christianity, Bulgarians abandoned the attested pre-Christian clan names. Yet, despite the undeniable strength of Byzantine cultural influence, neither aristocrats nor commoners in Bulgaria seem to have adopted Byzantine-type family names, nor, for that matter, making recourse to the use of patronymics as found among the Eastern and other Southern Slavs. Thus, for example, the name Asen became a true family name only among members of the royal family living in Byzantium. More generally, the few cases of family names or patronymics apparently applied to medieval Bulgarians, seem to be restricted to a foreign context. While family names and patronymics do not seem to have been employed in Christian Medieval Bulgaria, many individuals (at least where males are concerned) appear to have sported double names, composed almost invariably of a baptismal Christian name paired with a folk name usually derived from Slavic or even Bulgar tradition. This practice included Bulgaria’s monarchs, most of whom had such double names that should not be misinterpreted as family names or patronyms, as often done in the past. Specific names did, however, function as indicators for belonging within a particular lineage, as witnessed by the propagation of names like Asen, Terter, Šišman, and Sracimir. Thus, while these cannot be considered true family names, we could continue to use them as expedients to designate the ruling clans of Medieval Bulgaria (e.g., the House of Terter), albeit recognizing this to be a modern label. These considerations not only elucidate another aspect of cultural practice in Medieval Bulgaria, but also allow and necessitate a relatively inobtrusive emendation and systematization of the historiographical nomenclature of Medieval Bulgarian monarchs. Discarding the notion of family names and recognizing foreign patronymics for what they are, it becomes possible to recover the actual results of dynastic name selection, as well as the rationale behind them.
CS
Tento článek zkoumá aspekty neoficiálních osobních jmen ve třech různých jazycích (kazaštině, ruštině a němčině): strukturu, sémantiku, motivaci a kulturní a národní identitu. Vzhledem k tomu, že kazaština, ruština i němčina náleží k odlišným strukturním systémům, jejich neformální osobní jména se liší svou strukturou a slovotvorbou, sémantickými modely a národními zvláštnostmi motivace. Struktura neformálních osobních jmen zahrnuje tzv. „kvalitativní jména“ (hypokoristika, deminutiva, augmentativa, pejorativa) a přezdívky (meliorativní, andronymické, kolektivní, výsměšné, školní, hanlivé). Nejproduktivnějším způsobem tvoření emočně expresivních forem osobních jmen ve zkoumaných jazycích se ukázal být způsob morfologický (afixace).
PL
W artykule autor analizuje funkcjonowanie dwóch polskich nazw etnicznych w tekstach dawnego piśmiennictwa nowogrodzkiego, w toponimii nowogrodzkiej i leksyce dialektalnej. Pierwsza część artykułu została poświęcona etnonimowi ляхи. Omówiono występowanie etnonimu w dawnych kronikach (latopisach) nowogrodzkich. W wyniku antroponimizacji tego etnonimu pojawiły się stare nowogrodzkie imiona własne Ляхъ, Ляшко, które zostały odnotowane w gramotach na korze brzozowej z XII–XIII w. Przeanalizowano również średniowieczną toponimię z tematem Лях-/Ляш- na terenach leżących w pobliżu południowo-zachodnich granic historycznej ziemi nowogrodzkiej, por. nazwy miejscowości Ляховичи (znana od 1134 roku) oraz Лахова (= Ляхова). Jest bardzo prawdopodobne, że te nazwy były pozostawione przez starożytnych Lachów-Lędzian, którzy wraz z innymi Słowianami mogli uczestniczyć w kolonizacji północno-zachodniego terytorium rosyjskiego. Druga część artykułu jest poświęcona nazwie поляки, która utrwaliła się w języku rosyjskim w XVII wieku, przesuwając nazwę ляхи na peryferie językowe. W piśmiennictwie rosyjskim zaczęto używać etnonimu поляки w opisach wydarzeń okresu Wielkiej smuty w Rosji na początku XVII w. Zwykle jednak w rejestrach podatkowych ziemi nowogrodzkiej (piscovyje knigi) oraz innych dokumentach z XVII–XIX w. używa się słowa поляк w szerszym sensie – jako określenia mieszkańców dawnej Rzeczypospolitej, czyli państwa polsko-litewskiego. Najczęściej słowem поляк nazywano Białorusinów, którzy uciekli na sąsiednie ziemie nowogrodzkie w poszukiwaniu lepszego życia. Zresztą etniczni Polacy również żyli w niektórych miejscowościach guberni nowogrodzkiej w XIX w. W końcowej części artykułu przedstawiono kilka napisów nagrobnych w języku polskim, które zostały znalezione na miejscu pochówku Polaków z XIX wieku we wsi niedaleko Nowogrodu.
EN
This article analyzes how Polish ethnic names are reflected in the material of ancient Novgorod written sources, Old Novgorod toponymy and dialectal vocabulary. The first part of the article is devoted to the ethnonym Ljachi. Firstly, the functioning of the ethnonym in ancient Novgorod chronicles is explored. Due to the so-called “anthroponymization” of this ethnonym the Old Novgorodian personal names Ljach, Ljashko marked in the 12th–13th centuries, appeared. Secondly, the medieval toponymy on Ljach-/ljash- is explored, among which most important are the names of Ljachovichy (from 1134) and Lachova (= Ljachova) in villages located near the southwestern borders of the historical Novgorod Region. It is likely that these place-names were left by the ancient Ljachi-Lendzjane, which, along with other Slavs, could have participated in the colonization of the territory of the Russian Northwest. The second part of the article deals with the ethnic name Poljaki that stuck in the Russian language in the 17th century, displacing the ethnic name Ljachi to the periphery of the language. Novgorod Cadastre Books (piscovyje knigi), as well as other written documentation of the 17th–19th centuries generally use the word Poljak in the wider, territorial sense – as a designation of the inhabitants of the Polish-Lithuanian States. Most often, the word Poljak referred to the Belarusians who had fled to neighboring Novgorod in search of a better life. However, ethnic Poles also lived in separate localities in Novgorod province in the 19th century. At the end of the article, there is interesting material on inscriptions in Polish, that are on the tombstones over the graves of Poles living in the 19th century in the countryside near Novgorod.
EN
The article explores the thematization of proper names (anthroponyms, chrematonyms and toponyms, includings street names) in Czech travelogues describing Soviet Russia (and later the Soviet Union). The material for the study comprised 40 travelogues published in book form and relating to the period 1917–1956. The aim of the article is to demonstrate how proper names function in this type of travelogue as a means of reflecting and promoting Soviet society, its values and ideology. The article also explores how proper names – particularly name changes in response to historical developments – were presented and commented on by the authors of pre- and post- World War II travelogues. Predominantly up to 1945, naming practices under the Bolshevik regime (name changes, new personal and geographical names, the practice of giving ‘revolutionary’ names to children) were viewed as part of the creation of a new Soviet reality and a new society, and the authors emphasized the ideological value and propaganda function of proper names.
CS
Text se zabývá tematizací vlastních jmen (antroponym, chrématonym, toponym včetně uličních názvů) v českých cestopisech ze sovětského Ruska, později Sovětského svazu. Materiálem studie bylo 40 knižně vydaných cestopisů pojednávajících o období 1917–1956. Cílem studie je představit propria z daného typu cestopisů jako prostředek propagace sovětské společnosti, jejích hodnot a ideologie. Studie si rovněž všímá způsobu, jakým byla vlastní jména autory meziválečných a poválečných cestopisů prezentována a komentována. Důraz je přitom kladen na problematiku přejmenování v závislosti na historických proměnách. V období před rokem 1945 byly pojmenovací praktiky (přejmenování, nová osobní a zeměpisná jména, křty revolučními jmény) provázející bolševický režim vnímány jako součást vytváření nové sovětské reality a společnosti a byla zdůrazňována ideologická hodnota a agitační funkce proprií. Tyto procesy byly levicovými autory přijímány s nadšením jako projev pokroku a revolučních změn, ostatními pouze stroze konstatovány, či dokonce kritizovány. Po roce 1945 se v přístupu k novým pojmenováním s kritikou již nesetkáváme, a to především vlivem důsledného uplatňování jednotného striktně ideologického pohledu na sovětskou realitu a její zobrazení. Výjimkou je pouze hodnocení revolučních osobních jmen jako přežitých.
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Content available remote Živé osobné mená z východného Slovenska vo viacslovných spojeniach
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The paper focuses on the unoficial personal names in the village of Bracovce (eastern Slovakia) and their functioning as a component of a multi-word phrase (idiom). It proves to be productive in everyday spoken communication. The role of the live name is not only to identify the person it refers to, but it is also an important psychological and sociolological factor. Analysed fixed expressions can be concisely characterized as phraseological or idiomatical units. These units are semantically more or less close by figurativeness of the official forms of idioms (known in Slovak phraseology). Specific aspect of these units is the unofficial anthroponym as its component. This aspect refers to the relation between onymic and phraseological motivation. The motivation of using the personal names in these unofficial forms of idioms is the attribute expressing mental, physical or working qualities of the person it refers to, it can also refer to a specific situation. The aim of the paper was to capture and record the behaviour of unofficial anthroponyms in microsocial background.
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