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1
Content available Sumienie i autonomia
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In this article I claim that the idea of autonomy of conscience cannot be used as a plausible basis for ethics.
Human Affairs
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2015
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tom 26
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nr 2
140-152
EN
This paper investigates the meaning of conscience in providing healthcare and Slovak healthcare workers’ lived experience of conscience. It draws on data from semi-structured interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. The data was analyzed using a phenomenological hermeneutic interpretation. Two main themes relating to the lived experience of conscience were derived-preserving one’s conscience integrity, by satisfying one’s conscience in order to sustain it, using defense mechanisms for protection, following one’s inner conviction, and respecting the patient’s individuality and having a troubled conscience in relation to external factors, medical procedures and options, and demands by the authorities. The results are discussed in relation to the literature.
EN
The article addresses the problem of possible rights for superintelligent systems by using a distinction between moral dimension and rational dimension in human beings and proposing to endow artificial systems only with rational dimension.
EN
Contemporary organizations are one of the most important actors in social life. This is particularly true of business organizations whose activity often has extremely moral consequences. The aim of the paper is to present the problem of moral subjectivity and reflection on the possibility of recognizing an organization as a moral subject. The basis for the considerations were three reference points developed in subsequent parts of the article. The first is the category of moral responsibility. The second concerns the approach of moral subjectivity through the process of moral development. The third point is the category of conscience. Each of these points has been described as an attribute of a moral subject. On the basis of the examples, comments and discussions cited, the arguments for and against the attribution of the organization of moral subjectivity were confronted.
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One of the most important manifestations and signs of the new culture of life is unconditional defense of human life from conception to natural death which John Paul II spoke very often about.  Involvement and forms of activity in this field depend on the state of human consciences - from their righteousness. The author shows this fundamental issue in the light of the remains current and relevant today Encyclical Evangelium vitae. At the beginning it refers to the fact that the word conscience is today a commonly used as a moral category, but ambiguously understood. He draws attention that the root of this phenomenon is on the one hand, the practical abandonment of the objective truth known by reason, and, on the other hand, the departure from the faithful revelations of the truths revealed by God. Then he shows his commitment to defending human life as a testimony of right conscience. He stops by the legal protection of human life from conception, indicates to verbal manipulations blurring the truth about actions against human life, and stresses the importance of opposing conscience to unjust law. Finally, he draws the issue of shaping the right conscience in the defense of human life. He indicates to the proclamation of the Gospel of life, at the center of which is the person of Jesus Christ, emphasizes the intellectual aspect of formation of conscience, i.e. need for clear and convincing arguments about the value of human life and the proficiency of educating the young generation to live sexually in the service of love and life. It also draws attention to the many signs of the victory of the culture of life, but also to phenomena that point to the need for further actions to defend human life.
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Content available Profetyczny wymiar sprzeciwu sumienia
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The possibility of conscientious objection for different professions, particularly doctors and pharmacists, is a very topical issue both with reference to law and ethics. The author of this  article suggests that the reflection should be enriched with a biblical perspective, which enables connecting the concept of conscience with the teaching of prophets and thus brings out the prophetic dimension of conscientious objection. Therefore he outlines the biblical aspect of conscience and the broad phenomenon of prophetism and depicts the prophet as the nation's conscience. The author presents biblical examples of conscientious objection in the Old Testament and in the light of the words and deeds of Jesus as a Prophet. He enumerates the characteristic features of the objection and its significance for contemporary people.
PL
Możliwość sprzeciwu sumienia przez ludzi różnych zawodów, w szczególności lekarzy i farmaceutów, jest zagadnieniem żywo dyskutowanym, zarówno w aspekcie prawnym, jak i etycznym. Autor artykułu proponuje dopełnić tę refleksję o perspektywę biblijną, która pozwala skojarzyć kategorię sumienia z nauczaniem i życiem proroków, i ukazać profetyczny wymiar sprzeciwu sumienia. W tym celu szkicuje biblijny aspekt sumienia i szerokiego zjawiska profetyzmu ukazując proroka jako sumienie narodu. Na tym tle przedstawia biblijne przykłady sprzeciwu sumienia w Starym Testamencie, sprzeciw sumienia w świetle słów i czynów Jezusa jako Proroka i wskazuje na cechy charakterystyczne owego sprzeciwu oraz na jego znaczenie dla współczesnego człowieka.
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Content available Problem sumienia w świetle nauki apostoła Pawła
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W artykule przedstawiono pogląd, że sumienie jest zasadniczym czynnikiem konstytuującym na- turę ludzką. Sumienie podzielone jest na wspólne wszystkim ludziom i niezmienne sumienie uni- wersalne oraz sumienie indywidualne, które jest kształtowane w każdym człowieku przez czynniki wewnętrzne i zewnętrzne. Pogląd ten porównany jest z nowotestamentowym poglądem na sumienie zaprezentowanym przede wszystkim przez apostoła Pawła.
9
Content available The Role of Discretion in Professional Practice
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PL
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EN
Various scholars of ethics and economics conduct research on the best modes of decision making which guarantee good outcome and moral behaviour of the individuals involved. Either of the modes considered, rules with regulations or discretion and judgment, find applicability in diversified professional circumstances. The paper investigates how discretion can be used in professional activity by using the Aristotelic-Thomistic framework. Results indicate that such a framework can be used by engineers in their working environments and by other working professionals with the main proposition that only in discretionary decision making is the person able to take full responsibility for the outcomes and to premeditate their moral worth in conscience before resolving to commit the act itself.
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Content available remote Slabé jednání : Činit rozhodnutí a jednat po Levinasovi
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EN
Our article focuses on the late philosophy of Levinas, which can be characterized as an ethics of radical passivity, and on its limits (especially in the relationship between ethics/society). The aim is not, however, to overcome the dichotomy of passiv-ity/activity as other phenomenological authors attempt to do, but to deepen this differentiation to such an abysmal level that any sort of philosophy of action is eliminated from this late project of the ethics of passivity. Such a thorough separation of the ethics of responsibility from the entirety of the philosophy of action, one of the main aspects of Levinas’s late works, also has its limitations in Levinas’s thought itself. These limitations are associated with the entrance of the so-called “third party” into the sphere of the infinite responsibility for the Other. We attempt to interpret this contradiction of infinite ethics and finite Justice with the help of Foucault’s concepts of decisions, division, and exclusion.
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Content available remote NOTES ON SOME INTERPRETATIONS OF AMORIS LAETITIA
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After the Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Amoris laetitia of the pope Francis there emerged many different, and sometimes conflicting, interpretations of the pastoral indications contained within the document. The question regards the admission to the sacrament of Eucharist for the divorced living in a new union. According to some authors, the document changes the sacramental discipline valid till now, while others see the continuity with the previous teaching of the Church on that matter. The essay analyses in particular the arguments in favor of the change, adding some critical notes, and comes to the conclusion that the problem calls for a further clarification.
EN
Seneca shows us that reading the philosophers can enable the reader to escape time. He also teaches how to possess the future achieving fame among wise and virtuous people. In Seneca’s opinion, time is our greatest wealth, however ephemeral it might be, although his tragic heroes and heroines as well as the author himself are conscious of the fact that death limits the time of life thus making it valuable. Nevertheless, his philosophy is often pessimistic, neglecting hope as a key to the future.
EN
In theology, a sin is described as mysterium iniquitatis and absolution from it— mysterium salutis or pietatis. In the New Testament a sin is always connected with absolution, “forgiveness,” and sinners are of great concern for Jesus. Nevertheless, modern culture becomes more and more detached from Christian tradition and thus deprives a human being of the spiritual values and makes him become further impoverished. This article provides a synthetic discussion of the reality of a sin—“mystery of illicitness” and also reflects on repentance and reconciliation with God and with one’s own neighbour. The reflections presented in this article are based on the teachings of the contemporary Church and on the Papal teachings especially.
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In contemporary positive law there are legal institutions, such as conscientious objection in the context of military service or “conscience clauses” in medical law, which for the sake of respect for judgments of conscience aim at restricting legal obligations. Such restrictions are postulated to protect human freedom in general. On the basis of Thomas Aquinas’ philosophy, it shall be argued that human dignity, understood as the existential perfection of a human being based on special unity (individuality and particularity), provides a foundation for imposing limitations on the scope of legal obligations in general. Human freedom plays a crucial role in understanding dignity as perfection based on the special individuality of a personal being, which in turn is based on the free choice to pursue a unique way of life. Therefore, Aquinas’ argumentation is, at its core, liberal – the perfection rather than the imperfection of a human being underlies the requirement to limit legal obligations. Dignity understood as the special unity of a person also provides the basis for limiting obligations in the case of conscientious objection; however, in that case, such limitations aim at safeguarding internal integrity rather than the individualisation of a given way of life.
EN
The aim of this essay is to consider how the dominant moral theories can be applied to the discourse of disaster situations. In specific times, specific values take priority. Therefore, this article will consider how moral theory deals with time. Kant’s moral philosophy has influenced ethics enormously, but rejects the idea of a temporal dimension in ethics; consequently, modern ethics has not devoted sufficient attention to the temporal dimension. Nonetheless, Kantian ethics established the basic principles of respect for human beings as ends in themselves, and for autonomy of rational beings; thus it cannot be ignored. In political decision-making, simply having good intentions does not suffice; they must be accompanied by responsibility. Both the ethics of consequentialism and virtue ethics (the virtue of wisdom) deal with responsibility for the future. Hans Jonas developed a concept of responsibility concerned particularly with the risks associated with new technologies and the ethical requirement to avoid disasters. “Uncertainty may be our permanent fate - which has moral consequences” (Jonas). Public policy should be precautionary. The ethics of disaster preparation planning is distinct from the ethics of disaster response planning.
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Content available remote Will and feeling. Individualism in the philosophy of František Mareš
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František Mareš, a physician and physiologist, was one of the first Czech thinkers to realise the potential of Kant’ thoughts for the modern discussions about man. The article is focused on Mareš’s specific concept of emotion which, at least to a certain extent, differs from the Kantian idea of the structure of human being, and attempts at a certain phenomenology of the “overall organic bond” that Mareš considered to be the cardinal expression of (not only) human life. The main goal of Mareš’s endeavours is to found the individual’s subjectivity, which presupposes a reform of the then medical and cultural praxis. Mareš was firmly convinced that the dominant scientific tendencies which ignored man should be replaced by respect for man’s moral dignity
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The article considers the set of problems in O. Sych’s novel, providing artistic transformation of the main ideas of “Tibetan Book of the Dead” into the sphere of national and existential searchings of the main hero Orest. The author analyses compositional peculiarities of the novel: twinnery, sense inversion, profound metaphoric ambiguity of Uroboros.
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Content available remote Complicating Conscience, Refreshing Discontent
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EN
The 19th Century New England author Thoreau provides an approach to conscience and unjust laws approximating that given by St. Thomas Aquinas in Summa Theologiae. But the portrait of conscience given by Thoreau in the 1848 oration “Civil Disobedience” is incomplete. Thoreau’s approach is solved by accepting insights given in Part I and Part I–II of Summa Theologiae. Allowing St. Thomas’ insights requires reform of Thoreau’s civil disobedience and conscientious objection. But Thoreau’s arguments are given new life.
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Content available The Consumer Ideology and the Truth about Man
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The formation of the human conscience is a controverted question in both philosophical ethics and moral philosophy. Conscience refers to one’s conception and understanding of the moral good. An especially significant manifestation of the problem of conscience in the 20th and 21st centuries is the impact of ideology on the individual person’s moral sense. This article considers the impact of two 19th century philosophies―Mill’s utilitarianism and Marxism―on contemporary moral thought insofar as the interaction of these two produce a powerful materialist ideology to determine the modern European and American conscience. We then turn to the thought of Pope John Paul II (Karol Wojtyła), who in his encyclical Veritatis Splendor and in his earlier philosophical writings developed an account of moral truth by which the dangers of materialistic ideology can be overcome. It is argued, with John Paul II, that only in the context of truth can a coherent account of freedom of conscience under the moral law be developed.
EN
Hardly any problem in contemporary theological-moral discourse causes such turbulence as the searching, reflection, and demarcation of the boundaries between good and evil in human acting. A fundamental problem is a criterion or a reference point according to which a person could reliably determine what is good and evil. Divergent theological views in the theological-moral dimension seem to have caused the clear boundaries between good and evil to disappear. Therefore, the crucial question is whether there is still a universal criterion for theological evaluation of a human act, as the situation in theological-moral discourse resembles an areopagus of opinions that have no common point in distinguishing between good and evil. This reflection examines the possibility if the Thomistic ethical analysis of a human act, together with the principle of double effect, may be a reference point for the demarcation of these boundaries.
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