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1
Content available remote Obraz brzemienia rodziny z osobą chorą na schizofrenię
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PL
Naukowe zainteresowanie rodziną chorych na schizofrenię ma swoistą historię. W latach czterdziestych w systemie rodzinnym upatrywano główną przyczynę tej choroby. Obwinianie rodziny za spowodowanie choroby przerodziło się następnie w oskarżanie o powodowanie jej nawrotów. Akcentowane obecnie teorie genetyczne także nie rozwiązują problemu, gdyż rodzice czują się winni z powodu swoich genów. Z czasem zaczęto dostrzegać, że rodzina dźwiga materialne, emocjonalne i społeczne konsekwencje choroby, a ciężar opieki nad chorym nazwano „brzemieniem rodziny". W tym kontekście doszło do rozwoju tendencji przeciwstawnych, nastawionych na niesienie pomocy i wsparcia rodzinom z chorym na schizofrenię. Celem niniejszego artykułu jest ukazanie, jak trudnym i złożonym problemem jest życie z człowiekiem chorym psychicznie w rodzinie. Artykuł składa się z dwóch części; w pierwszej nakreślono ogólnie funkcjonowanie rodziny w sytuacji zachorowania jednego z jej członków, w drugiej natomiast przybliżono rozumienie brzemienia i czynników z nim związanych.
EN
Scientific interest in the families of schizophrenic people has had a history of its own. In 1940's, the family was considered to be the main factor responsible for the illness. Blaming the family was later replaced by accusing it of causing relapses. Genetic theories which are being propagated currently do not seem to solve the problem either, as the parents may feel guilty for their genetic load. With the course of time, it has become clear that the family bears the material, emotional and social consequences of the disease, and the responsibility of providing care for the ill has been termed "family burden". This stance gave birth to various tendencies aimed at helping and supporting the families of people with schizophrenia. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the difficulty and complexity of families providing care for a family member with schizophrenia. The article consists of 2 parts: the first one outlines the general family functioning in families providing care for a family member with schizophrenia and the second one aims at characterizing the burden and related factors.
EN
Studies indicate that physical activity has a positive effect both physiologically and socially for psychologically ill and vulnerable people, and that this effect is the same or greater for psychologically well-functioning people. In spite of this, treatment sites often hesitate to include sports and physical activity as part of the treatment offered. This article argues that there is a strong correlation between the body and mind, but from a different point of view than that adopted by the prevalent scientific research in the field. Specifically, I elucidate how the mind-body relationship and self-consciousness are influenced by physical activity for people with schizophrenia, and argue that symptoms are relieved as a result of physical activity. Consciousness has a bodily component that, for people with schizophrenia, is less well-integrated in the consciousness than for psychologically well-functioning people, and sports and physical activity can help facilitate this integration. My argument is based partly on phenomenological concepts and partly on an empirical research project concerning physical activity for people with schizophrenia. The conclusion is that their level of functioning and self-assessed quality of life increased markedly through physical activity. The purpose of the present article is thus partly to qualify the treatment chosen for people with schizophrenia, and partly to qualify the theoretical discussion concerning the role played by the body and physical activity in connection with consciousness and relief.
3
Content available Doświadczenie muzyczne w regulacji nastroju
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EN
The theoretical concept of the use of music in daily life and its connection to mood regulation in terms of musical experience, describe people in terms of their individual differences. Considered in this context, the issues relate to the relationship between musical experience (according to the concept of P.D. Werner, 2006) and the use of mood regulation strategies (according to the idea R. Larsen, 2000) or the use of control strategies involving mood music (according to the concept of S. Saarikallio and J. Erkkilä, 2007). Citing the results of their study, lead author introduces the reader to the world of elementary operations empirical and wants to stimulate reflection on the issue of infiltration of human experience in the field of psychology to the complex world of music. Key words: music, mood regulation, musical experience, schizophrenia
4
Content available Zaburzenia dyskursu w schizofrenii
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EN
The main aim of the article is to show a spectrum of problems experienced by people with schizophrenia, which emerges as communication disorders. In the area of problems, etiology of the disease and its impact on the discourse are taken into account. The occurrence of disturbed areas of communication outlines a language model which may appear among people with schizophrenia.
EN
The aim of this paper is to compare susceptibility to the Stroop effect in men with schizophrenia and in men with frontal lobe lesions. A sample of 90 men participated in the study. They were divided into three groups: men with schizophrenia (n = 30), men with localized frontal lobe lesions (n = 30) and healthy men (n = 30) as a control group. Significant differences measures found between controls and men with schizophrenia in all of the analyzed variable (Control task execution time p < 0,001; Interference task execution time: p < 0,001; Difference between two times p < 0,05). Men with frontal lobe lesions differed significantly from healthy controls in the terms of speed of the task execution (Control task execution time p < 0,01; Interference task execution time: p < 0,01), but were no more prone to the Stroop effect than healthy controls. No significant differences were found between schizophrenia and frontal lobe lesion groups.
EN
The aim of this paper is to compare susceptibility to the Stroop effect in men with schizophrenia and in men with frontal lobe lesions. A sample of 90 men participated in the study. They were divided into three groups: men with schizophrenia (n = 30), men with localized frontal lobe lesions (n = 30) and healthy men (n = 30) as a control group. Significant differences measures found between controls and men with schizophrenia in all of the analyzed variable (Control task execution time p 0,001; Interference task execution time: p 0,001; Difference between two times p 0,05). Men with frontal lobe lesions differed significantly from healthy controls in the terms of speed of the task execution (Control task execution time p 0,01; Interference task execution time: p 0,01), but were no more prone to the Stroop effect than healthy controls. No significant differences were found between schizophrenia and frontal lobe lesion groups.
EN
Vasopressin - pituitary neurohormone, in addition to the essential role of which is to regulate blood pressure and affecting the body's water balance, it is involved in other processes such as social behaviour, memory processes and learning. It also plays an important role in modulating anxiety. This hormone seems indispensable for the creation of proper social interactions, and its low plasma levels correlate with the dysfunction of interpersonal relationships. In this article, we review and summarize the studies on the role of vasopressin in the pathogenesis and therapy of schizophrenia. Despite some potential limitations in peer-reviewed studies, the literature suggests the potential role of vasopressin in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and the possible therapeutic application in this psychiatric disorder.
EN
The aim of the study was to assess working memory and executive functions in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients (healthy parents). There were 25 healthy parents of schizophrenic patients, 8 males and 17 females, mean age 53 years, participating in the study. The control group consisted of 25 healthy individuals, matched by age and gender to the parents of schizophrenic patients. In this group, there were 10 males and 15 females, mean age 54 years. The neuropsychological assessment included Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, N-back Test and Stroop Test. The results indicated that there were statistically significant disturbances of working memory and executive functions in the group of healthy first- degree relatives of schizophrenic patients, compared to the group of individuals unrelated to schizophrenic patients. These differences were greater in the case of parents of schizophrenics with lower level of education, compared with the healthy subjects without family history of schizophrenia.
EN
Schizophrenia still poses the greatest theoretical problems in contemporary psychopathology. These problems should be investigated through the works of authors who deal with schizophrenia representing different psychological theories. The author takes into consideration psychoanalytic and phenomenological point of view. The statements of those theories are encountered in the field of humanistic psychology.
EN
Background. Schizophrenia is one of the commonly occurring disorders, often causing a high degree of disability to the patients, as well as being stressful to the caregivers. Objectives. To find the efficacy of psycho-education on knowledge regarding schizophrenia among caregivers and reducing their level of burden. Material and methods. A randomized controlled trial was used to assess the effectiveness of psycho-education among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. This study was conducted at a selected state government mental hospital in Karnataka, India. 350 caregivers were randomly assigned to study (n = 175) and control groups (n = 175). Both the group subjects were initially assessed for knowledge and burden. The study group caregivers participated in one or two psycho-education sessions with routine nursing care. Control group subjects received routine care in the hospital. Post-intervention assessment was done at the end of one-month and three-month intervals. Results. At pre-test, the study group caregivers’ mean knowledge scores were mean = 22.93, SD = 17.03, which was improved to mean = 85.90, SD = 9.51 at the one-month follow-up and mean = 97.94, SD = 4.41 at the three-month follow-up. This improvement was statistically significant at a 0.01 level when compared to control group caregivers. The study group caregivers’ mean burden scores that were initially recorded at pre-test mean = 82.37, SD = 10.40 reduced to mean = 49.13, SD = 8.28 at the one-month follow-up and mean = 40.86, SD = 6.27 at the three-month follow-up. This improvement was statistically significant at a 0.01 level when compared to control group caregivers. Conclusions. The study group caregivers showed an improvement in knowledge gain and a reduction in care burden. The present study findings provided evidence for the role of psycho-education intervention in reducing care burden among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and was also found effective in caring for their relatives with appropriate knowledge
EN
Studies indicate that physical activity has a positive effect both physiologically and socially for psychologically ill and vulnerable people, and that this effect is the same or greater for psychologically well-functioning people. In spite of this, treatment sites often hesitate to include sports and physical activity as part of the treatment offered. This article argues that there is a strong correlation between the body and mind, but from a different point of view than that adopted by the prevalent scientific research in the field. Specifically, I elucidate how the mind-body relationship and self-consciousness are influenced by physical activity for people with schizophrenia, and argue that symptoms are relieved as a result of physical activity. Consciousness has a bodily component that, for people with schizophrenia, is less well-integrated in the consciousness than for psychologically well-functioning people, and sports and physical activity can help facilitate this integration. My argument is based partly on phenomenological concepts and partly on an empirical research project concerning physical activity for people with schizophrenia. The conclusion is that their level of functioning and self-assessed quality of life increased markedly through physical activity. The purpose of the present article is thus partly to qualify the treatment chosen for people with schizophrenia, and partly to qualify the theoretical discussion concerning the role played by the body and physical activity in connection with consciousness and relief.
EN
Purpose: The study is an attempt at describing the psychological characteristics of caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia which contribute to deepening or reducing the negative consequences of care. The study examines the relationship between the burden of care and maladaptive cognitive schemas and strategies of coping with stress used by the caregivers. Exploring this problem area may be important for the planning and implementation of support programs for people caring for relatives with mental illness. Material and methods: Thirty caregivers of relatives with schizophrenia completed a questionnaire set comprising the Zarit Burden Interview, the Mini-COPE, the Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3-PL) and a sociodemographic sheet. Results: Significant relationships were found between burden of care and sociodemographic indicators, maladaptive schemas and adaptive/non-adaptive coping strategies. Especially, caregivers of family members with schizophrenia which is associated with depression and/or alcohol dependence are more likely to report the burden of caring for individuals with schizophrenia than those with somatic comorbidities. Higher burden of care characterises caregivers who have a higher level of eight out of 18 maladaptive schemas and less frequently use active coping with stress. Correlations between maladaptive schemas and coping strategies have also been obtained. Conclusions: In  working with carers of relatives with schizophrenia, special attention should be paid to the coexistence of other disorders like depression or alcohol abuse. Moreover, the work should be focused on maladaptive schemas in caregivers, which can block their use of adaptive strategies of coping with stress.
PL
Cel: W badaniu analizowano związek między odczuwanym przez opiekunów osób chorych na schizofrenię ciężarem opieki a posiadanymi przez nich nieadaptacyjnymi schematami poznawczymi w ujęciu Younga i współpracowników oraz strategiami radzenia sobie ze stresem. Poznanie tego obszaru problemowego może być ważne dla planowania i wdrażania programów wsparcia dla osób opiekujących się krewnymi chorującymi psychicznie. Materiał i metody: Trzydziestu opiekunów krewnych chorych na schizofrenię wypełniło ankietę socjodemograficzną oraz Zarit Burden Interview Version 1.0 (ZBI), Kwestionariusz Schematów Younga (YSQ-S3-PL) i kwestionariusz Mini-COPE. Wyniki: Stwierdzono istotne zależności między odczuwanym ciężarem opieki a wskaźnikami socjodemograficznymi, schematami nieadaptacyjnymi oraz adaptacyjnymi i nieadaptacyjnymi strategiami radzenia sobie ze stresem. W przypadku chorych na schizofrenię, u których współwystępowała jednocześnie depresja i/lub uzależnienie od alkoholu, opiekunowie odczuwali znacząco większy ciężar opieki niż w przypadku chorych, u których występowały obok choroby psychicznej choroby somatyczne. Większy ciężar opieki charakteryzuje opiekunów, którzy mają wyższy poziom ośmiu z osiemnastu schematów w ujęciu Younga i rzadziej korzystają z aktywnego radzenia sobie ze stresem. Odnotowano również korelacje między nieprzystosowawczymi schematami i strategiami radzenia sobie. Wnioski: Pracując z opiekunami krewnych chorych na schizofrenię, należy zwrócić szczególną uwagę na współistnienie u ich podopiecznych zaburzeń, takich jak depresja czy nadużywanie alkoholu. Ponadto pomoc powinna koncentrować się na próbach zmiany nieadaptacyjnych schematów u opiekunów, które mogą blokować stosowanie przez nich przystosowawczych strategii radzenia sobie.
13
Content available remote Kognitívny deficit u pacientov so schizofréniou
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EN
The aim of the review article is to provide recent empirical evidence about cognitive deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Authors characterized cognitive deficit, analysed neurobiological basis and assessment of deficit severity, relationships to course of illness and symptoms of disorder. Approach of clinical neuropsychology is compared to current approach based on the cognitive neuroscience. Last part of the article is devoted to the topic of rehabilitation and treatment of cognitive deficit through the psychopharmacological intervention and cognitive remediation.
SK
Autori sa v prehľadovej práci zameriavajú na priblíženie aktuálnych poznatkov v oblasti kognitívneho deficitu, ktorý je prítomný u pacientov so schizofréniou. Uvádzajú charakteristiku kognitívneho deficitu, jeho neurobiologický základ a taktiež zhodnotenie jeho závažnosti, vzťah k priebehu a symptómom poruchy. Opisujú prístup klinickej neuropsychológie a novších postupov v rámci kognitívnych neurovied k jeho skúmaniu. V závere sa venujú aktuálnym možnostiam ako ovplyvniť kognitívny deficit, či už prostredníctvom psychofarmakologických postupov, alebo prostredníctvom kognitívnej remediácie.
PL
Schizofrenia to jedno z najcięższych zaburzeń psychicznych. Nazywana jest chorobą królewską ze względu na bogactwo doznań i przeżyć chorego. W tzw. zdrowym społeczeństwie jest bardzo mało tolerancji dla inności i miejsca dla osób z niepełnosprawnościami psychicznymi. To wynik strachu przede wszystkim przed tym, co jest niezrozumiałe i nieznane. Chorzy często są marginalizowani i stygmatyzowani. Artykuł to próbaoddemoniz owania schizofrenii w powszechnej świadomości społecznej. Autorka czyni to, ukazując zarówno samą chorobę, jak i osoby nią dotknięte, które poprzez swoją artystyczną aktywność twórczą wpuszczają nas do swego świata, czyniąc go bardziej dostępnym i zrozumiałym.
EN
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe mental disorders. It is called the “royal disease” due to the wealth of sensations and experiences of the patient. In a so-called “healthy” society there is very little tolerance for otherness, nor space for people with mental disabilities. This is primarily for fear of what is incomprehensible and unfamiliar. Oftentimes patients are marginalized and stigmatized. This article is an attempt to “undemonize” schizophrenia in the general public consciousness. The author does this by describing the disorder itself as well as aff ected individuals who through their artistic creativity let us into their world, making it more accessible and understandable.
EN
Collaboration between doctors and patient is a perfect example of a specific kind of collaboration in the organization. Difficulties with establish proper relations between psychiatrists and patients with depressive disorders and schizophrenia is the subject of the paper. The thesis of the work assumes that psychiatrists and patients belong to the totally different “worlds” what is the cause of inability to create proper mutual collaboration between them. In 2009 a questionnaire survey was conducted at public mental hospitals of the Lodz region. Both doctors and patients notice a number of communication barriers and factors hampering the mutual cooperation, at the same time demonstrating the will to agree and cooperate. The proper contact and collaboration affect mental disposition and motivation for the process of recovery from the illness. Conclusion: To a large extent not only a course of the treatment, but also a correct social functioning of both groups of the patients depends on the quality of the interrelation between them and psychiatrists. It appears, however, that the hierarchy of obstacles of successful therapy is completely different among the doctors and patients
EN
The study aims to confront two concepts of fragile subjectivity: one by Emmanuel Lé vinas and the other by Paul Ricœur. However, this is not the purpose in itself. Actually, the first step consists on the pointing out the similarities and divergences that exist between both approaches in dealing with the open and labile trait of human identity. This step further serves to highlight the discussion points which, due to the tension generated by the underlined incompatibilities, stimulate thinking and the search for mediation. To illustrate the fertility of this controversy, it is transferred to the area of philosophy of psychiatry, where an attempt is made to apply both anthropological positions to a philosophical interpretation of the essence of the phenomenon of schizophrenia. This interpretation of the pathogenesis of the chosen phenomenon allows, in turn, for a cautious conclusion to be drawn as to the described controversy between Lé vinas and Ricœur.
EN
Aim: Research into quality of life has become very important recently, since quality of life is increasingly used to characterise diseases and estimate the efficiency of therapeutics. The aim of this study was to determine significant factors that are associated with the quality of life of patients with schizophrenia accommodated in social welfare institutions. Material and methods: The study was conducted at the Institution for the Accommodation of Adults “Male Pcelice,” Kragujevac, Serbia. It was designed as a cross-sectional study. The quality of life was measured by using five distinct scales. The data on factors that might be associated with the quality of life were obtained from case records and the patients’ questionnaires. The association of every single factor was evaluated by using comparative analysis and the method of multiple linear regression. Results: Multiple linear regression shows that EuroQoL Five-dimensions – Five-Level scale score was associated with gender (B = −0.059 ± 0.021; p = 0.006) and daily dose (B = −0.051 ± 0.015; p = 0.001); Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire score was associated with the patient’s level of education (B = 2.873 ± 1.054; р = 0.007); the number of prescribed antipsychotics was associated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale score (B = 3.150 ± 1.111; р = 0.007); the physical domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF was associated with the year of disease onset (B = −0.142 ± 0.055; р = 0.011) and the daily dose (B = −2.335 ± 0.787; р = 0.004); the psychological domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF was associated with gender (B = −2.686 ± 1.216; р = 0.029); the social relationship domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF was associated with the level of education (B = 3.109 ± 1.289; р = 0.017) and the number of prescribed antipsychotics (B = −3.297 ± 1.516; р = 0.031); the environment domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF was associated with the number of prescribed antipsychotics (B = −1.420 ± 0.653; р = 0,031). Conclusion: The quality of life of patients with schizophrenia was higher in males with a university degree, when the duration of the disease was shorter, negative symptoms were less pronounced, and with fewer side effects. Efforts to improve the quality of life in patients with schizophrenia accommodated in social welfare institutions should be made that could contribute to the prevention of adverse outcomes.
PL
Cel pracy: Badania nad jakością życia nabrały ostatnio szczególnej wagi – coraz częściej kategoria ta jest stosowana do opisu chorób oraz oceny skuteczności leczenia. Celem badania była określenie istotnych czynników związanych z jakością życia pacjentów chorych na schizofrenię przebywających w placówkach psychiatrycznych stałego pobytu. Materiał i metoda: Badanie o charakterze przekrojowym zostało przeprowadzone wśród pacjentów Centrum Pobytu dla Osób Dorosłych „Male Pcelice” w miejscowości Kragujevac w Serbii. Jakość życia chorych na schizofrenię zmierzono za pomocą pięciu skal. Dane dotyczące czynników, które mogły mieć wpływ na jakość życia badanych, zostały pozyskane z dokumentacji medycznej pacjentów oraz z wypełnianych przez nich ankiet. W ocenie zależności pomiędzy jakością życia pacjentów a poszczególnymi czynnikami wykorzystano analizę porównawczą oraz metodę regresji wielorakiej. Wyniki: Metodą regresji wielorakiej wykazano, iż wynik skali EuroQoL Five-dimensions – Five-Level korelował z płcią pacjentów (B = −0,059 ± 0,021; p = 0,006) oraz dzienną dawką przyjmowanych leków (B = −0,051 ± 0,015; p = 0,001), wynik Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire – z poziomem wykształcenia (B = 2,873 ± 1,054; р = 0,007), liczba przyjmowanych leków przeciwpsychotycznych – z wynikiem skali Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (B = 3,150 ± 1,111; р = 0,007), domena fizyczna skali World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF – z czasem trwania choroby (rokiem wystąpienia choroby) (B = −0,142 ± 0,055; р = 0,011) oraz dzienną dawką przyjmowanych leków (B = −2,335 ± 0,787; р = 0,004), domena psychologiczna skali World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF – z płcią (B = −2,686 ± 1,216; р = 0,029), domena społeczna skali World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF – z poziomem wykształcenia (B = 3,109 ± 1,289; р = 0,017) oraz liczbą przyjmowanych leków przeciwpsychotycznych (B = −3,297 ± 1,516; р = 0,031), zaś domena środowiskowa skali World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF – z liczbą przyjmowanych leków przeciwpsychotycznych (B = −1,420 ± 0,653; р = 0,031). Wnioski: Jakość życia chorych na schizofrenię objętych badaniem była wyższa u pacjentów płci męskiej z wyższym wykształceniem, o krótszym przebiegu choroby, z mniej dotkliwymi objawami oraz mniejszą liczbą skutków ubocznych. Poprawa jakości życia osób chorujących na schizofrenię przebywających w placówkach psychiatrycznych stałego pobytu pozwoli zapobiec niepomyślnym wynikom leczenia psychiatrycznego.
EN
The aim of this review is to appraise current evidence on the association between employment and specific, non-vocational components that are indicators of recovery from schizophrenia, such as symptom remission, neurocognitive functioning, social cognitive functioning, and quality of life. Out of 754 studies identified in a comprehensive bibliographical data search, 43 were selected for abstract screening and 18 were included in the final review. The studies were categorized in terms of the type of employment investigated (supported employment, Individual Placement and Support, competitive employment). Studies on the Individual Placement and Support programs provide the strongest evidence for their effectiveness in terms of non-vocational outcomes. Quality of life, psychopathology and well being were the most frequently investigated outcomes and only 2 studies utilized a global concept of recovery as a measure. Employment was also associated with positive changes in domains that are not directly related to working, e.g., leisure activities. The current review reports promising, but not conclusive, results in the improvement of quality of life, social functioning and other indicators of recovery, but there is still a need for high quality, long term follow-up, randomized studies to further investigate this relationship.
EN
Suicide is a type of behaviour which assumes the need of overcoming the instinct of self-preservation, as well as overcoming the natural fear of death; it is therefore an act which is in contradiction with basic human instincts. Scientists looking for the answer to the question, what makes people decide that they want to end their life, focus on different aspects of the problem, and as a consequence it is possible to distinguish several directions of suicidal behaviour analysis; they include, among others, psychiatric and psychological directions. Psychiatry analyses suicide in the context of psychological disorders of a person. Psychology studies self-destructive behaviours with particular focus on human psychology, motivation, personality and consciousness of the made decision. Findings of those sciences will be the subject of this article.
EN
Violent and aggressive behaviour is a serious problem among hospitalised psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to assess factors that may help predict violent behaviour in psychiatric inpatients. Method: The study group consisted of 107 patients hospitalised in the Department of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 58), schizophrenia (n = 39) and anxiety disorders (n = 10). Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a review of medical records and patient interviews using a self-prepared questionnaire. Results: Of 107 respondents, aggressive behaviour occurred in 46 patients (42.99%). A low risk of aggressive behaviour was observed in 68 patients (63.6%), medium risk – in 37 patients (34.6%), and high risk – in 2 subjects (1.9%). The study demonstrated a significant association between aggressive behaviour and short duration of the illness (p = 0.002), the criminal history of the patient (p = 0.003), the use of sedatives (p = 0.04), unemployment (p = 0.00034) and male gender in patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (p = 0.03). There were no statistically significant differences between the incidence of violence and the main diagnosis (p = 0.56). The study showed no association with alcohol (p = 0.5) and psychoactive substance abuse (p = 0.07), age (p = 0.8), addiction in family (p = 0.1), history of suicide attempt (p = 0.08) and the lack of insight into the illness (p = 0.8). Conclusions: Based on these results, it appears that the most important factors in the occurrence of aggressive behaviour were criminal history, prior violent behaviour and short duration of the illness. The use of sedative drugs and male gender were also significant risk factors.
PL
Zachowania gwałtowne i agresywne są poważnym problemem wśród pacjentów hospitalizowanych psychiatrycznie. Celem pracy była ocena czynników, które mogłyby być predyktorami występowania zachowań agresywnych. Metoda: Grupę badaną stanowiło 107 pacjentów hospitalizowanych w Klinice Psychiatrii Dorosłych Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu z rozpoznaniem choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej (n = 58), schizofrenii (n = 39) i zaburzeń lękowych (n = 10). Dane  socjodemograficzne i kliniczne uzyskano poprzez przegląd dokumentacji medycznej pacjenta oraz wywiad z wykorzystaniem kwestionariusza własnego. Wyniki: Spośród 107 badanych zachowania agresywne występowały u 46 osób (42,99%). Niskie ryzyko zachowań agresywnych stwierdzono u 68 chorych (63,6%), średnie – u 37 (34,6%), a wysokie – u 2 (1,9%). Badanie wykazało znaczący związek między ryzykiem wystąpienia zachowań agresywnych a krótkim czasem trwania choroby (p = 0,002), karalnością pacjenta (p = 0,003), stosowaniem leków uspokajających (p = 0,04), brakiem zatrudnienia (p = 0,00034) i płcią męską w grupie osób z rozpoznaniem choroby afektywnej dwubiegunowej (p = 0,03). Nie zaobserwowano istotnych statystycznie korelacji między występowaniem agresji a typem choroby (p = 0,56). Nie wykazano również związku badanej zmiennej z uzależnieniem od alkoholu (p = 0,5) i narkotyków (p = 0,07), wiekiem (p = 0,8), uzależnieniem w rodzinie chorego (p = 0,1), liczbą prób samobójczych (p = 0,08) i brakiem wglądu w chorobę (p = 0,8). Wnioski: Uzyskane wyniki wskazują, że najważniejszymi czynnikami ryzyka zachowań agresywnych są karalność pacjenta, występowanie w przeszłości zachowań agresywnych i krótki czas trwania choroby. Istotnymi czynnikami okazały  się także stosowanie leków uspokajających oraz płeć męska.
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