There is an increasing trend in the modern construction industry to use nanomaterials, which allow to improve the performance of construction materials on the one hand, and to shape new properties on the other. This study presents the results of physicomechanical and antibacterial tests for cement composites modified with zinc nanooxide. The main aim of this study was to compare the structural and morphological properties of three selected commercial zinc nanooxides and to determine the influence of the above mentioned nanooxides on the physicomechanical properties of cement composites and the ability to inhibit the activity of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. It was shown that commercial nanooxides can significantly differ in terms of physicochemical properties, which depend on their production method. Two of them were characterized by high specific surface areas, which in turn translated into rheological properties of cement mortars. Nanooxides with higher specific surface areas tend to reduce the plasticity of the mortars. According to the literature data, all nanooxides caused a delay in cement binder setting by more than 100%. This resulted in a reduction of the early one-day flexural and compressive strength of the composite. In the later curing period, especially after 7 days of hardening, a significant acceleration of the hydration process was observed in composites with the addition of all nanooxides, which was confirmed by significant increases in mechanical parameters. Nevertheless, the tested nanooxides showed different sensitivity towards microorganisms, which was influenced by both the type of nanooxide and bacteria.