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Remedial timber treatment leading to the prolongation of wood durability has been known from ancient times. Rapid development of chemical treatment in wood preservation occurred in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. The introduction onto the market of certain chemicals was accompanied by the replacement of others by new offers. These changes were caused by scientific progress aiming at the introduction of better, more efficient products and the exclusion of those dangerous for man. The primary task of the treatment and repair of buildings is the discovery and elimination of causes for moisture. The next step is finding modern and effective products used against biological decay.
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The wooden sculpture entitlend „King Casimir the Great” , ca. 1380, which comes from the Collegiate in Wiślica, is at present the property of the Museum of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. This is a complete sculpture, executed in limewood, with polychromy, and covered with silver and gold paint. The prime conservation problem is the consolidation of the wood damaged by insects and the adhesion of impaired polychromy on almost the entire surface of the object. The impregnation of the wood was conducted with a 20 per cent solution of Paraloid B-72 in xylene, in a vaccum chamber under pressure. The loose polychromy was glued on with ethylene polyglicol PGE 2000, polyalcohol of vinyl water, used in the following proportions: PGE 2000 - 40 per cent, PAW - 4,8 per cent, water - 55,2 per cent. The sculpture was cleaned, the paint was retouch and the badly executed linning of the coat was removed. All the missing ground of the paint layer was implemented, and the lining of the coat was reconstructed. (translated by A. Rodzińska-Chojnowska)
EN
In 1982 a late gothic wooden crucifix situated on a tie beam damaged by a fire in the church in Niedźwiedź near Miechow. The polychromy of the sculpture was totally ruined, and the wood was partially charred. During the conservation of the object, conducted in the years 1985-1986, it was subjected to structural impregnation, whose purpose was to improve the resilience of the damaged wood to mechanicak factors. The impregnation agent was a solution of Osolan К in xylene. Elements of the cross and the sculpture were impregnated by using a method of total immersion in the solution, while the most damaged parts were impregnated in vaccuum chamber. This operation was repeated thrice, using solutions of increasingly greater strength ( 1 0 , 15 and 20 per cent). The gaping layers of the charred wood were glued together, and the cracks and empty spaces which were produced by reological changes, were filled with suitably coloured sawdust putty. The adhesive and binder of the puty was Osolan KL. The range of the replenishment was limited to a minimum constructive binding of the extant parts. After the completion of the conservation work, the sculpture of the Crucified Christ was restored to its formed place. Regrettably, changes in the form and colour of the object caused by the fire and irreversible, and attempts at a full reconstruction in a situation of greatly advanced destruction are unjustified. The fire, however, had not oblliterated the artistic value of the sculpture, and the visible marks of damage intensify its dramatic message. At present, Chair of Technology and Techniques of Conservation of Artworks has embarked upon research concerning the examination of phenomens accompanying the damage of wooden historical relics under the impact of high temperature, and the optimalization of the means and methods used for the conservation of such objects. (translated by A. Rodzińska-Chojnowska)
EN
As monument conservation is very scarcely represented in the Polish Academy o f Sciences, we are especially pleased by the fact that at the 77th Session o f the General Assembly on the 6th of December 1997 Professor Jerzy Ważny was appointed a corresponding member of the Academy. He is an outstanding specialist in the field o f wood preservation, the organizer and head of the only Department o f Wood Protection in Poland in the Main School o f Agriculture in Warsaw. Most o f his scientific and conservation work has been devoted to the problems o f wooden monuments. Professor Jerzy Ważny graduated from the Forestry Department o f the Main School o f Agriculture in Warsaw in 1950. He specialized in pathology and conservation of wood under the supervision o f Professor Jozef Kochman, a fu ll member of the Polish Academy o f Sciences. In 1957 he received the doctoral degree in the Department o f Wood Technology o f MSA, in 1962 he completed the habilitation procedures. In 1969 he was nominated as associate professor, and in 1976 as fu ll professor. In the same year he was elected a fu ll member o f the International Academy o f Wood Science (IAWS) in Vienna. He is also a member o f the International Research Group on Wood Preservation in Stockholm and the IUFRO group (Working Group on Wood Protection) in Rotorua, New Zealand. He worked very actively in the former Comecon Working Group for Monument Conservation in Warsaw and in Wood Research Coordination Centre in Bratislava. For many years he was a member and the chairman of the Scientific Council o f the former Ministry o f Forestry and Wood Industry. He has been a member o f the Scientific Council o f Monument Conservation Workshops, the Foundation for the Protection o f Monuments, and the chairman o f the Scientific Council o f the Centre for Conservation and Research over Monuments. In the years 1960-63 he was a counsellor o f the Minister o f Building Industry in the field of the protection o f b u ildings. Since 1956 he has been the chairman o f the International Committee o f Wood Protection. In 1990 he received the prestigious international „Ron Cockroft Award" from Sweden. He is also a laureate of many awards granted by the Minister o f Science, Higher Education and Technique, the Rector o f the Main School o f Agriculture, the Minister of National Education, as well as o f the „Meritorious Cultural Activist" medal. Professor Jerzy Ważny is the author of over 280 scientific publications. More than 90 o f them have been published in the leading journals connected with the field, such as „Holzforschung", „Hots- und Werstoff", „Material und Organismen”, „W o o d Science and Technology”, „W o o d and Fibre Science”, „International Biodeterioration", „Holztechnologie", „Chimia Dreviesiny” and others. His research work is devoted to the complex field of pathology and conservation of wood appearing as raw material, in buildings, historical monuments and works o f art. It is concerned with diagnostics o f phisiography and biology o f wood-destroying organisms, their in fluence on the technical parameters of wood, methods of conservation and methods o f protection. A special recent achievement is the modernization of toxicometric methods o f wood protection through introducing the computer estimation o f results for the first time in the world and applying numerical analysis in the diagnostics of wood-destroying fungi. A detailed presentation o f Professor Ważny's and his Department's works can be found in the fourth issue o f „Ochrona Zabytkow" from 1991. Professor Jerzy Ważny, himself or with co-workers, appraised as an expert over 9000 objects infected by fungi or insects, including a vast number o f mobile and immobile monuments. He was a supervisor or consultant in the conservation of numerous treasures of culture in Warsaw and all over the country. For many o f them detailed conservation projects were prepared. Some, such as the Palace in Nieborow or the Palace in Wilanow, were constantly supervised throughout their reconstruction. For many years the Museum of Folk A rchitecture in Sanok, the Museum o f Lublin Countryside and other Skansen museums were offered continuous assistance. Professor Ważny has also been involved in pedagogical work. He has had lectures on forest fitopathology and microbiology in the Forestry Department of MSA, on wood protection and conservation in the Department of Wood Technology, as well as on conservation microbiology in the Conservation Department o f the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw and on wood conservation in the Department o f Ethnology in the University o f Warsaw. He supervised over 80 master theses and 10 doctoral dissertations. He has trained more than 2000 experts in the field of the protection of buildings, including numerous monument conservators. Professor Jerzy Ważny has often been invited abroad as an expert, conference perticipant or visiting professor (Australia, New Zealand). He initiated and organized 16 international Symposia on Wood Protection, which have been held for 32 years biennially. According to Professor Jozef Kochman, a fu ll member of the Polish Academy o f Sciences, Professor Jerzy Ważny created a school of wood protection highly influential both in Poland and abroad.
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The paper is addressed to conservators and restorers of works of art. It deals with properties and use of ethylene polyglycols. In the part discussing properties a special attention has been paid to the effect of molecular mass, and in the part devoted to the application to the conservation of archaeological findings. The paper lists major trade products and singles out polyglycols made by Hoechst AG.
10
Content available Niektóre problemy konserwacji kościoła w Haczowie
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EN
The subject of considerations by the author is formed by the lasting several years conservation of the woodconstructed parish church at Haczów, Brzozów district, Rzeszów Voivodship. This late-Gothic edifice belonging to architectural monuments of „О” group and dating as far back as to the mid-fifteenth century is considered to be one of the most valuable objects of wood-built architecture in this country. In 1958—68 the church was subjected to conservation which was carried out by the carpenters’ teams sent by the Museum of Folk Building Art, Sanok. From 1969 forward the conservation that has been ordered by the Voivodship Conservator in Rzeszów is being carried out by the Lublin Branch of the state-owned company known as Ateliers for Conservation of Cultural Property, Jarosław Division. While analysing the main and most urgent needs of the object under conservation the author proposes that the most recent achievements be applied from the field of wood preservation and that the full design documentation be based on that prepared by conservators. As a point of utmost importance must be regarded the measures aimed at inhibiting the decay processes in wood exposed to weather and in consequence to destructive action of fungi and insects. Another important point consists in the need to have an appropriate historical, descriptive and photographic documentation which should be prepared prior to starting any conservating treatments, during their course and on their completion. Only such an exhaustive documentation can furnish a guarantee that the restoration will be carried out in a proper way. The lack of such documentation for the church in question caused that some errors occurred in works already done. To have preserved this specimen of the wood-constructed sacred building it is — according to the author’s suggestions — inevitable to extend the range and the kind of works as well as to accelerate their course, at the same time heightening the quality level of ex e cution. Taking into account the above requirements it seems also necessary to organize a special laboratory that would be entrusted with working out of methods of application of chemicals in conservation and at the same time with supervision over the works carried out. It is the author’s opinion that it is already the highest time to have solved the problem of the so called „timber bank” from which the required quantities of the well-seasoned, say during the three-year period, timber would be available to meet the needs of conservation.
EN
A situdy of much of the palace woodwork and decorative sculpture revealed that many places had been attacked by fungi wood-boring beetle. In some cases the wood fungus had even affected the brick walls. Various degrees of wood deterioration were confirmed — from minor superficial deterioration to a complete decay (smaller elements). Fungusinfected woodwork had appeared throughout the palace. Many technical difficulties arose due to the historical-artistic value and greatness of the palace and sometimes by the fact that some elements could not be demounted for conservation purposes. As regards the wood subframe, in certain cases the deteriorated wood was replaced while in other cases the fungus-infected wood was treated on the spot. The choice of anti-fungi preparations depended on their influence upon the immediate surroundings and the paintings. The wood freed of fungus was covered with an artificial resin. A separate problem concerned the conservation work on the oak sculptures crowning the towers. Here, in addition to fungi and insects, the weather had been a destructive factor. Following much research, most of the damaged parts were removed — the major defects in the sculptures were repaired with glued uniform wood, the smeller ones had the fissures filled with an appriopriate mass. Then all these restored sculptures were impregnated with in vacuum tenk an artificial resin. To prevent the devastation of the rich paintedsculptural works where the ceiling beams and planks of the ceiling lining had to be removed, the beams were fastened and the damaged elements and some reeds were removed from the top. The uncovered mortar was plastered over with 8 cm of gypsum with small amount of poliwinyl alcohol reinforced with a galvanized iron net. This plate was connected with the new steel construction by specially made hoopings.
RU
Инвентарная опись находящихся в здании Дворца многочисленных деревянных элементов консервации и скульптурного наряда обнаружила много очагов, заражённых грибницей и насекомыми. В нескольких случаях грибница перебросилась е деревянных частей на каменную стену. Сконста- тировано различную степень повреждений — от небольшого поверхностного до полного разлада (меньшие элементы). Поражение деревяннных частей выступило на целой территории Дворца. Артистически-историческая стоимость, размер объекта, иногда отсутствие возможности вымонти- рования элементов, создавало ряд технических трудностей во время ведения сохранительных работ. Для деревянных конструкций носких принято в случае необходимости замену разрушенной древесины, в остальных случаях — обеспечивано на месте. При выборе препаратов, употребляемых в борьбе с грибницей и к дезинфекции, принято во внимание их влияние на художественное изображение и на окружающую среду. Очищенную уже древесину следовало покрыть раствором искусственных смол. Особенную проблему составляла консервация дубовой резьбы, находящейся на башнях. (Кроме грибницы и насекомых разрушающее влияние имели тут атмосферные факторы. После проведения ряда исследований, решено удалить наиболее повреждённые места — значительно большую убыль резьбы заполнить то есть вклеить литую древесину, а меньшую убыль и трещины дополнить оконной замазкой. Целость, после возвращения ей первоначального вида, насытить раствором искусственной смолы. Чтобы предохранить от повреждения богатый живописно-скульптурный наряд, в случае, где ноские балки сводов и подпотолочные доски требовали удаления, своды укреплено, а сверху, повреждённые элементы и частично тростник-удалено. Открытую протраву залито 8-ми сентиметровым слоем гипсовой массы, оснащённой железной сеткой, оцинкованной. ПЛиту связано с новой стальной конструкцией ноской при помощи специально разработанных стремён.
15
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The substance of old furniture is a carrier of information concerning cultural significance, and becomes an object of scientific research and analysis. The results of the latter, apart from their cognitive merits, are of fundamental importance for the shaping of the conservation process. The proposed methods of estimating the state of preservation and identification of the components of furniture take into account its documentary nature and recognise as foremost all non-destructive solutions or those which restrict the size of the samples. It follow from a review of pertinent publications that in the practical field of conservation, the exact sciences can influence the selection of means and methods by verifying the traditional and contemporary techniques and by conducting comparative studies dealing with the usefulness of material available on the market.
PL
Procesy korozyjne wywołane przez czynniki bilogiczne (grzyby, glony, porosty, mchy, bakterie, owady) polegają na działaniu wydzielanych enzynów na składniki drewna. Reakcje korozyjne wywołane czynnikami bilogicznymi występują również w wielu innych tworzywach (beton, zaprawa, tworzywa polimerowe). Przykładem są tynki akrylowe, w których czynniki biologiczne (mchy, porosty, glony) znajdują odpowiednie składniki pokarmowe wywołujące silne zazielenienie powierzchni. W zaprawach i betonach wystąpić może silna wtórna korozja chemiczna.
PL
Dokonano optymalizacji zawartości substancji aktywnych w środkach myjących na bazie mydeł, przeznaczonych do mycia podłóg drewnianych. Opracowano receptury i sporządzono 4 preparaty z różną zawartością surfaktantów. Stosowano związki wytwarzane na bazie oleju kokosowego oraz mydło potasowe. Wykonane prototypy produktów przebadano pod kątem właściwości fizyczno-chemicznych (stabilność, lepkość, mętności, wielkość cząstek) w ich roztworach w wodzie destylowanej i w wodzie o twardości 10°n (modelowa kąpiel myjąca). Dodatkowo wykonano badania właściwości pianotwórczych, określono zdolność do emulgowania zabrudzeń tłuszczowych oraz rozpuszczalność w wodzie. Wzrost stężenia substancji aktywnych w preparatach prowadził do zmian w strukturze fazy objętościowej preparatów, co przejawiało się we wzroście ich lepkości i powodowało trudności w dozowaniu produktu oraz wydłużało czas jego rozpuszczania w wodzie. Wzrost stężenia surfaktantów w preparatach polepszał ich właściwości pianotwórcze oraz zdolności do emulgowania zabrudzeń tłuszczowych, ale ograniczał ich bezpieczeństwo stosowania w kontekście oddziaływania na skórę. Obecność mydła i wzrost jego stężenia w składzie produktów istotnie wpływa na pogorszenie właściwości pianotwórczych oraz wzrost mętności ich roztworów w wodzie twardej. Na podstawie rozkładu wielkości cząstek dowiedziono, że w kontakcie z jonami magnezu i wapnia w roztworze powstawały agregaty znacznych rozmiarów, złożone z nierozpuszczalnych w wodzie mydeł i hydrofobowego ekstraktu roślinnego. Obecność tego typu agregatów była niezbędna do wytworzenia na powierzchni drewna depozytu, wykazującego działanie ochronne, zabezpieczającego drewno przed wilgocią, a po wypolerowaniu nadającego połysk i gładkość powierzchni.
EN
Four floor cleaners were prepd. by dissoln. of concd. surface active agents in distilled, or hard water (concn. 2.5–10.0% by mass) and studied for stability, viscosity, turbidity, particle size, foam-forming properties, the ability to emulsifying fat deposits and soly. in water. The increase in the concn. of active substances resulted in a structural change of the bulk phase and increasing the viscosity. An improvement in foam-forming properties and the ability to emulsify fat deposits, limited their safety (impact on the skin) took place. An increase in turbidity of their solns. in hard water was obsd. in presence of Mg and Ca ions where large aggregates composed of water insol. soaps and a hydrophobic plant ext. and deposit over the wood surface were formed.
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