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The Muslim emigration to France is connected with many social, religious and political problems. The worshippers of Islam were admitted to settle, but not to integrate with French society and the national economy. Although, according to the French scheme of integration, all people are equal before the law and it is unlawful to emphasize differences, life in France does not reflect the Republican idea any more, and instead of creating the French nation as one community, a multicultural society unable to assimilate newcomers is being born. There are numerous stereotypes in French society that push aside Algerians and Moroccans, especially those living in the suburbs, and put them in conflict with the French legal system. This approach should change and the French must cease perceiving Muslims as strangers and realise they are lawful citizens, an inseparable part of their everyday life. The successive generations of Muslim immigrants should no longer be pushed to the margins of social life because of their ethnic origin, name, religion, and culture. The violent riots in France in 2005 and 2007, however, were caused not only by cultural conflict but also by the recession of the French economy. The main problem in the French suburbs is the high level of unemployment (40%) caused by the numerous meanders of the immigration policy. Instead of facilitating employment for immigrants, the government demands special professional training even for jobs which do not require such qualifications.
The article deals with the distinction between urban and suburban Jewish communities. The basic structure of large urban Jewish communities in pre-partition Crown Poland is known primarily from two systematic sources: the census of the Jewish population of 1764/65 and annual lists of the Jewsh poll-tax. With the discovery of the entire corpus of the Jewish poll-tax lists in Crown Poland for 1717-1764 a significanly new information can be added to this subject. The Jewish communal organisation in largest royal towns, except for Poznan, was characterised by the presence of independent suburban communities. One or more suburban communities co-existed with the urban one in Lublin, Lwów (modern Lviv in Ukraine), and Przemysl; the Jews of Cracow (Kazimierz) and Gdansk (German Danzig) were organised in suburban communities without urban community of their own. There was no Jewish community, either urban or suburban, before 1775 in Warsaw, nevertheless this city is dealt with in this article, since the information found in the poll-tax lists provides a very interesting insight into the very initial steps of the Jewish settlement in the Polish capital. Lublin is exceptionally well documented. Not only surrounding villages and suburbs are indicated in the poll-tax lists, but also numerous individual tax-payers figure there under their personal names and other qualifications, such as name of their lord, occupation, place of residence, and family connections. The peculiar form of suburban Jewish communities in largest royal cities of Crown Poland was caused probably by a combination of two main factors: burghers' self-government in those cities was powerful enough to expel the Jews from their municipal areas; but, not less powerful forces in the same cities were interested to settle the Jews in a close proximity.
Spatial structure of a part of cities in the USA is determined by highways. Usually, the impact of motorways only modified the spatial structure of cities in Europe. Another important role of motorways can be observed in respect of suburbanisation. A relatively new phenomenon is the emergence of edge cities. Overgrowth of suburbanisation has several harmful impacts which many think are in connection with motorways. However, to counterbalance their impacts is a very important task. Our paper is a short review of these issues.
The author is concerned with the suburbs of the town of Košice in the middle ages. He assesses the question of the origin of the suburban settlements and their administrative position, both secular and ecclesiastical, in relation to the town. The aim of the study is to find out whether some suburban settlements of medieval Košice had older origins than the privileged town itself. Such circumstances would probably be reflected in administrative arrangements. However, the achievement of a more comprehensive result is obstructed by the fact that there has been hardly any archaeological research in the given territory, and more extensive written sources begin only in the Late Middle Ages.
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