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EN
The article deals with Kant´s concept of logic on the background of the historical developments of logic taking into account particularly Leibniz´s influence. A special attention is paid to its formality emphasized by Kant and inspired by Leibniz. It is the form that is determining the possibility of logic´s development. Although Kant broke later with neo-Leibnizian-Wolffian metaphysics, some of Leibniz´s traces are still identifiable in his logic (formality quantification, the subject of logic).
EN
There are several difficulties in understanding the concept of modal realism in our philosophical context. The author shows various types of modal realism as a theory. The analyses of the main theories of modal world and modal individuals show the problems of identity and identification as the fundamental questions. One of the key problems is the place of individuals in modal world.
EN
The aim of the paper is to examine various aspects of holism, especially with regard to scientific knowledge and scientific realism. It is concerned with that tradition of holism, which has been largely influenced by W. V. O. Quine, but in some respects also by T. S. Kuhn. It offers a survey of different versions of holism (metaphysical holism, meaning holism, explanatory holism, confirmation holism, empirical holism, etc.), evaluating at the same time various aspects of the holistic approach. Attention is paid also to anti-holistic critique ant its contribution to understanding the nature and development of scientific knowledge.
EN
The paper offers an analysis of the forms of the Socratic paradoxes as well as their importance for the epistemological inquiries. In the author's view there are various kinds of paradoxes. A special attention is paid to the Meno paradox from Plato's 'Meno'. In dealing with paradoxes there are three possible strategies: their critical overcoming, their demythologization or their acceptation. The author gives the descriptions of all of these strategies, reminding us that each of them put the stress on a specific epistemological problem, whereby they are completing each other.
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