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EN
Immunohistochemical studies have been performed to investigate the coexistence of VIP with dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), somatostatin (SOM) or neuropeptyd Y (NPY) within nerve fibres supplying the immature mammary gland in the pig. Generally, a moderate number of the VIP-immunoreactive (VIP-IR) nerve fibres were located in the nipple and parenchyma of the gland. VIP-IR fibres surrounded smooth muscle cells (SMC), blood vessels (BV) and lactiferous ducts (LD). Double-labelling immunohistochemistry revealed that some of VIP-IR nerve fibres also contained immunoreactivity to DβH. VIP/DβH-IR nerves were associated with BV and SMC and single fibres were observed around the LD in both nipple and parenchyma of the gland. VIP/VAChT-IR nerve fibres were not observed. The majority of VIP-IR fibres associated with SMC were also SOM-IR. Less numerous VIP/SOM-IR fibres supplied the BV and were located around the LD of the gland. A small number of VIP-IR nerves also displayed immunoreactivity to NPY. VIP/NPY-IR nerve fibres supplied the BV of the gland.
EN
The presence of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was studied in neurons and nerve fibers of the porcine otic ganglion. ChAT-positive neurons were very numerous while VAChT-positive nerve cells were moderate in number. The number of neurons containing NPY and VIP was lower and those containing SOM, GAL, SP or CGRP were observed as scarce, or single nerve cells. The above mentioned substances (except SOM) were present in nerve fibers of the ganglion. ChAT- and VAChT-positive nerve fibers were numerous, while the number of nerve terminals containing NPY, VIP and SP was lower. GAL- and CGRP-positive nerve fibers were scarce.
EN
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is a substance, which can play the role of neuromediator and/or neuromodulator in nerve structures within the gastrointestinal tract. However knowledge concerning its functions and co-localisation with other neuronal factors is rather scarce. During the present investigation the co-localisation of CART and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the neurons of meyenteric plexus within the porcine transverse colon was studied using double immunofluorescence technique and semiquantitative arbitrary scale of the frequency of presence CART+/VIP+, CART+/VIP– and CART–/VIP+ neuronal cells. The most often (+++) CART–/VIP+ neurons were encountered, neurons simultaneously immunoreactive to CART and VIP were observed somewhat rarer (++) and only single (+) CART+/VIP– perikarya were visible. The present study reports for the first time on the co-localisation of CART and VIP in myenteric neurons of the porcine transverse colon. (Folia Morphol 2013; 72, 4: 328–332)
EN
Two molecular forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), i.e., PACAP27 and PACAP38 (0.0001-1 |jM), as well as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; 0.1-3 |LiM), have been studied for their effects on cyclic AMP formation in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex of duck and goose. All three peptides concentration-dependently stimulated cyclic AMP production in the tested brain regions of 2-3-weeks-old (young) ducks, with VIP showing at least one order of magnitude weaker activity than PACAP. This characteristics suggests the existence in the duck's brain of adenylyl cyclase-linked PACi receptors. Both forms of PACAP also stimulated the nucleotide formation in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus of 5-6-months-old (adult) ducks or geese grown under natural environment. The peptides-evoked effects in adult and young ducks were comparable, and clearly greater than those found in adult geese. The present data extend our recent observations made on chicks, and suggest PACAP to be a potent stimulator of the cyclic AMP generation in the avian central nervous system.
EN
Substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and galanin (GAL), present in primary sensory neurons, are involved in transmission of nociceptive signaling from the peripheral to central nervous system. In this study we investigated the effect of GAL on SP-induced or VIP-induced evoked tongue jerks (ETJ) in response to noxious tooth pulp stimulation during perfusion of the cerebral ventricles with SP or VIP solutions. The experiments were carried out on rats under chloralose anesthesia. It was shown that both, SP and VIP, perfused through the cerebral ventricles enhanced the ETJ amplitude as compared with control, but the effect produced by SP was stronger. The intracerebroventricular perfusion of GAL 5 minutes before SP caused a dose-dependent inhibition of SP-induced ETJ, whereas GAL perfused through the cerebral ventricles 5 minutes before VIP did not reduce the excitatory effect of VIP on ETJ. These results indicate that the antinociceptive effect of GAL perfused through the cerebral ventricles, tested on the trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats, is specifically mediated by the SP-ergic system.
EN
The uterine cervix-projecting neurons located in the lumbar paravertebral ganglia were identified by retrograde tracing. These contained immunoreactivity to TH and DBH. No immunoreactivity to GAL, VIP and SP was found in the neurons. Extirpation of the uterus reduced the expression of TH and induced the expression of GAL in the neurons. Expression of other substances studied was unchanged.
EN
The pattern of distribution of nerve fibers containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the oviduct and uterine horn was compared in ovariectomized (OVX) gilts administered oestradiol or placebo. Compared to controls, VIP-positive nerve fibers were scarce in the muscular layer and submucosa and absent under the luminal epithelium of the oviduct and uterine horn by 24 hours after oestradiol administration. Their number was steadily returning to the number visible in control animals by 72 hours after hormone administration, except that the nerve fibers located under the luminal eptihelium were still absent. NPY-positive nerve fibers were slightly more numerous by 24 hours after the oestradiol administration, but their number was falling to the number visible in control gilts by 72 hours after oestradiol administration. There were surprising discrepancies between the visible number of nerve fibers and quantitative measurements of VIP and NPY concentrations in the oviduct and uterine horn. Administration of oestradiol increased VIP concentration in the ampulla of the oviduct and perioviductal and middle part of the uterine horn, which then gradually decreased. However, VIP level in the isthmus of the oviduct and paracervical part of the uterine horn decreased after oestradiol. Oestradiol also decreased NPY concentration in the isthmus of the oviduct and the middle and perioviductal part of the uterine horn, but increased NPY concentration in the paracervical part of the uterine horn. The NPY concentration in the ampulla of the oviduct was similar among gilts.
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