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An analysis of transient changes in physiological parameters in response to the standardized tests could be used to evaluate the efficiency of the regulatory processes. Relationships between systolic time intervals and heart rate following the action of standing up from the supine position were investigated in 41 healthy men, aged 20 to 59 years, classified into three groups: (22 to 26 yrs, n=14), (33 to 49, yrs, n=13) and (51 to 59 yrs, n=14). The protocol consisted of the following sequence: laying down (20 minutes) - standing up (8 minutes). Ejection time, pre-ejection period, electromechanical systole, heart rate and the length of R-R intervals were continuously calculated using automatized impedance cardiography and electrocardiogram. The ratio of ejection time to pre-ejection period in young men was significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. The ratio of ejection time to the length of R-R interval increased with age in supine position and after standing up when R-R interval was maximal. It was suggested that changes of ejection time to pre-ejection period during the orthostatic manoeuvre are rather the result of balance between heart rate and hemodynamic factors, than solely related to heart rate.
Strength training is recommended for slowing age-dependent deterioration of muscular strength and for rehabilitating patients with muscle weakening illnesses. Reliable assessment of muscle strength is important for proper design of strength training regimes for prevention, rehabilitation, and sport. One repetition maximum (1RM) is an established measure of muscular strength and is defined as the value of resistance against which a given movement can be performed only once. Proper assessment of 1RM is time consuming, and may lead to muscle soreness as well as temporary deterioration of the function of the tested muscles. Attempts at indirect 1RM determination based on the maximum number of repetitions performed have predicted 1RM with a variable degree of accuracy. Cardiovascular safety has been neglected in 1RM determination, although arterial blood pressure increases considerably when exercising against maximal or near maximal resistance. From the perspective of cardiovascular safety, favorable 1RM measurement methods should avoid performance of repetitions until failure; movement against high resistance and muscle fatigue both increase blood pressure. Although such techniques are likely less accurate than the current methods, their prediction accuracy be sufficient for therapeutic strength training.
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