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Purpose. Accurate shooting in basketball is a prerequisite for success. Coordination ability, one of the abilities that determine the repeatability of accurate shooting, is based on kinesthetic differentiation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the strength component of kinesthetic differentiation ability and determine its relationship with shooting accuracy. Methods. Peak muscle torque of the elbow extensors under static conditions was measured in 12 young basketball players. Participants then reproduced the same movement at a perceived magnitude of 25%, 50%, and 75% of static peak torque, with error scores calculated as a measure of kinesthetic differentiation. The results were compared with players’ field goal percentages calculated during game play in a regional championship. Results. No statistically significant relationships were found between the level of kinesthetic differentiation ability and field goal percentage. Additionally, no upper limb asymmetry was found in the sample. Conclusions. The relatively high levels of elbow static peak torque suggest the importance of upper limb strength in contemporary basketball. The lack of a statistically significant difference between the right and left limbs decreases the risk of suffering injury. It is likely that choosing other suitable tests would demonstrate the relationships between field goal percentage and kinesthetic differentiation ability.
Purpose. In most circumstances it is possible to provide the precise estimation of force and weight by means of kinesthetic differentiation. In some conditions, like physical effort or fatigue, kinesthetic differentiation can become reduced. The kinesthetic differentiation capacity can be expressed as repeatability of muscular contraction force or movement. The present study investigates the direction of changes in kinesthetic differentiation of force applied by both arms during elbow flexion and extension before and after exercise. Basic procedures. The study sample consisted of 23 cyclists (mean ± SD) aged 18.1 ± 1.8 years, 17 rowers aged 18.1 ± 1.8 years, and a control group consisting of 32 subjects aged 21.3 ± 1.3 years. All subjects performed a progressive exercise test. Kinesthetic differentiation was measured as the repeatability of force applied during elbow flexion and extension. Main findings. The results obtained confirm that kinesthetic differentiation in both arms after exercise improved by means of elbow extension. Further research can contribute to the development of ways of control of adaptation changes in the central nervous system and the locomotor system on a general level, since the studies so far have described either local changes, e.g. EMG, or provided specific data related to typical patterns of activity in a given sport. Conclusions. The proposed method allows identification of effects of intense exercise on the kinesthetic differentiation capacity on a more general level.
Introduction. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the structure of coordination motor abilities (CMA) in male basketball players at different levels of competition. Material and methods. The study included 183 male basketball players from 10 Polish sports clubs. The examined groups consisted of seniors (n=42) aged 24.5 (± 3.3), juniors (n=37) aged 16.8 (± 0.6), cadets (n=54) aged 14.5 (± 0.1) and children (n=50) aged 13.4 (± 0.2). A battery of motor tests was administered to assess the following CMA: kinesthetic differentiation of movements, spatio-temporal orientation, reaction time, movement coupling, sense of balance, sense of rhythm and adjustment of movements. The structure of CMA under investigation was determined based on the results of Hotelling's principal component analysis in Tucker's modification, completed with Kaiser's Varimax rotation [1, 2]. Results. The CMA structure of basketball players was composed of three or four factors. Most often these included rhythm, movement differentiation, movement coupling and adjustment of movements. Less frequently the structure consisted of spatio-temporal orientation, balance and reaction time. An in-depth analysis of the CMA structure revealed that factors ranged from heterogeneous (children and cadets) to homogeneous ones (juniors and seniors). The distribution of identified factors in the common variance was the smallest in children and cadets (58.9% and 62.9%, respectively) and the biggest in juniors and seniors (69.3% and 68.48%, respectively).
Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-point discrimination sense (2PD), strength and kinesthetic differentiation of strength (KDS), range of motion (ROM) and kinesthetic differentiation of movement (KDM) dysfunctions in occupationally active women with mild and moderate forms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) compared to a healthy group. Material and Methods The 2PD sense, muscle strength and KDS, as well as the ROM and KDM of the radiocarpal articulation were assessed. Results The results of the 2PD sense assessment showed significantly higher values in all the examined fingers in the CTS women group compared to healthy women (p < 0.01). There was a significant difference in the percentage value of error in the strength and KDS of pincer and cylindrical grips (p < 0.01) in the CTS women group compared to healthy women. There was no difference in the ROM of flexion and extension between studied groups (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the percentage value of error in the KDM of flexion and extension movement of the radiocarpal articulation (p < 0.01) between the studied groups. Conclusions There are significant differences in the 2PD sense, KDS and KDM in occupationally active women with mild and moderate forms of CTS compared to healthy women. There are no significant differences in ROM in professionally active women with mild and moderate forms of CTS compared to healthy women. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(2):185–96
Background: This study aimed to assess the accuracy of force production by the limbs and to identify the ability to differentiate this force during a progressively increasing value, in response to different types of extrinsic feedback. Material and methods: The study involved nineteen healthy and physically active boys and girls aged 12.82±0.34 years, body height 157.05±9.02 cm, and body mass 44.89±7.89 kg. The tasks were to perform a series of right and left upper limb pulls and pushes with increasing force using the levers of the kinesthesiometer and a series of lower limb presses on the pedal of the kinesthesiometer. The tasks were completed in three feedback conditions: no feedback, sound feedback, verbal feedback, and the retention test was used. To assess the level of accuracy of force production, the novel index of force production accuracy (FPAIndex) was used. Results: The outcomes expressing the value of FPAIndex on the point scale indicated that the highest level of kinesthetic differentiation was observed when no feedback was provided (1.17 points), and the lowest kinesthetic differentiation was recorded when verbal feedback was provided (3.33 points). However, they were devoid of statistical value. The repeated-measures analysis of variance ANOVA with the Tukey post-hoc test (HSD) indicated a significant lowest (p=0.0402) level of accuracy of FPA (x̄36.12±18.29 [N]) only for the act of left lower limb press (LL PRESS) in the retention test, while no feedback was provided to the subjects. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that verbal and sound extrinsic feedback did not affect the accuracy of force production by the upper and lower limbs and the ability to differentiate this force in simple movements among children.
Cel: Celem badań była ocena dokładności generowania siły przez kończyny oraz identyfikacja zdolności do jej różnicowania podczas powtarzania ze stopniowo wzrastającą wartością, w odpowiedzi na różnego rodzaju zewnętrzpochodne informacje zwrotne. Materiał i Metody: W badaniach uczestniczyło dziewiętnaście zdrowych i aktywnych fizycznie chłopców i dziewcząt w wieku 12.82±0.34 lat, o wysokości ciała 157.05±9.02 cm i masie ciała 44.89±7.89 kg. Zadania polegały na wykonaniu kolejno z rosnącą siłą serii pociągnięć i pchnięć dźwigni kinestezjometru prawą i lewą kończyną górną oraz na wykonaniu serii nacisków kończynami dolnymi na pedał kinestezjometru. Zadania wykonywano pod wpływem: dźwiękowej informacji zwrotnej o różnym natężeniu, werbalnej informacji zwrotnej o różnej sile głosu oraz bez informacji zwrotnej. Wykonano także test retencyjny. Do oceny poziomu dokładności generowanej siły wykorzystano autorski wskaźnik dokładności generowanej siły (FPAIndex). Wyniki: Wyniki odzwierciedlające wartość FPAIndex w skali punktowej wskazały że najwyższy poziom różnicowania kinestetycznego zaobserwowano w przypadku próby pozbawionej informacji zwrotnej (1.17 pkt), a najniższy w próbie z przekazem werbalnej informacji zwrotnej (3.33 pkt). Były one jednak pozbawione wartości statystycznej. Analiza wariancji ANOVA z porównaniem wielokrotnym, wykonanym testem post-hoc Tukeya (HSD) wykazała istotnie najniższy (p=0.0402) poziom FPA (x̄36.12±18.29 [N]), tylko dla czynności naciskania lewą kończyną dolną (LL PRESS) w teście retencyjnym, gdy badanym nie dostarczano informacji zwrotnej. Wnioski: Wyniki badań pokazały, że werbalne i dźwiękowe zewnątrzpochodne informacje zwrotne nie mają wpływu na dokładność wytwarzania siły kończynami górnymi i dolnymi a także na zdolność jej różnicowania podczas wykonywania ruchów prostych wśród dzieci.
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