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The paper sketches the way in which Hans Driesch tried to work out the category of individuality as the specific conceptual category of biology, constituting a means of scientific research concerning specific characters of the living world.
The paper confronts two phenomena - home and community - which are of special interest not only for the philosophers, but also for sociologists, psychologists, political, social scientists, etc. In what sense is it possible that for an individual community be the most proper and essential space of co-being with others, deserving thus the name of authentic 'home' or, for that matter, a 'social home'? To answer this question, the author explores the various meanings of community and its metamorphoses in modernity up to our days. The common features of both, home and community, may be defined as security, protection (shelter), hand closeness of relationships, support, commitment, etc. On the other there are some problematic features, at least from the standpoint of liberal individuality, such as collectiveness, unity, discipline or even the power of illiberal community over individual. Despite all controversies, community in new visions (communicative, participative) remains the idea to be discussed and searched for.
Content available remote Stosunek Nicolaia Hartmanna do Gottfrieda Wilhelma Leibniza
tom 12
nr 2(17)
In this paper I demonstrate the main aspects of the relation between the philosophy of N. Hartmann and G.W. Leibniz. Firstly, I present Hartmann’s two ideas of the history of philosophy. Secondly, I consider some chief domains in which Hartmann referred to the ideas formulated by Leibniz. These are ontology, epistemology, anthropology and ethics. Thirdly, I analyze several concrete examples of this relation (individuality, the principle of sufficient reason, free will).
Man is a social being, he lives among the people and operates them throughout their lives. W. M. Kozlowski theory assumes the primacy of man over society. In Polish philosopher occupies the foremost place, feeling and will pushing for action. In this way — according to W. M. Kozlowski — the person will broaden the horizons of the general public and individuals through the interrelation with society becomes a liberated nation.
Individuality and ideality are the two principles according to which aesthetes yesterday and today interpret art. But individuality must have priority because the systems of ideality, established for instance by Winckelmann and Schiller, produce nothing but lifeless, abstract and uniform figures who represent a concept or the genus. Individuality, on the contrary, is an analogon to nature where everything has its end and sense in itself, and everything must be judged by itself. This is the difference between the figures and works of Shakespeare and those of the idealizing authors. Individuality, however, does not simply mean the imitation of nature; rather it means a well-balanced synthesis of the material and the spiritual in something characteristic. This renders the objection of ugliness invalid, too, because it only pertains to the sensual perception, that is the beginning of perception. Those identifying the beautiful with the ideal are also at risk of insisting on objects which in the course of time lose their novelty and power. The study by the Hungarian aesthete and literary critic Janos Erdelyi, written in 1847, is an important attempt to enforce the principle 'life as it is' in the philosophy of art.
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