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EN
Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides enhances the risk of various diseases, including neurological disorders, e.g. Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease, arteriosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. For this reason the aim of the presented study was to estimate serum concentration of glucose in subchronic intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide. Materials and Methods: The rats received chlorpyrifos at a daily dose of 0.2, 2 or 5 mg/kg b.w./day for 14 or 28 days. For biochemical determinations of serum glucose in the rats ready-to-use kit was applied. Results: In subacute intoxication with chlorpyrifos the increased serum concentration of glucose was observed after 14 days of intoxication with the highest dose (5 mg/kg b.w.) and after 28 days of intoxication with all dose levels used. Conclusions: The results of this study showing the increased concentration of serum glucose in subacute intoxication with low doses of chlorpyrifos, as well as the literature data suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides can increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. It may thus be concluded that people occupationally exposed to these compounds should be subjected to diagnostic tests for early detection of diabetes. Med Pr 2013;64(4):527–531
PL
Wstęp: Z badań epidemiologicznych wynika, że narażenie na pestycydy fosforoorganiczne zwiększa ryzyko zachorowania na niektóre choroby, m.in. neurologiczne (np. chorobę Parkinsona, chorobę Alzheimera) i układu krążenia, a także na cukrzycę. Celem niniejszej pracy była ocena stężenia glukozy w surowicy krwi szczurów przy podostrym zatruciu niskimi dawkami chlorpyrifosu - związku fosforoorganicznego stosowanego jako insektycyd. Materiały i metody: Badania wykonano na szczurach samcach szczepu Wistar, którym przez 14 lub 28 dni sondą dożołądkowo podawano raz dziennie roztwór olejowy chlorpyrifosu w dawce 0,2; 2 lub 5 mg/kg m.c./dzień. Zwierzęta z grupy kontrolnej otrzymywały olej. W surowicy oznaczano stężenie glukozy metodą kolorymetryczną przy użyciu gotowych zestawów. Wyniki: Stwierdzono wzrost stężenia glukozy w surowicy po 14 dniach podawania chlorpyrifosu w najwyższej badanej dawce oraz po 28 dniach podawania związku we wszystkich badanych dawkach. Wnioski: Zarówno uzyskane wyniki (wzrost stężenia glukozy w surowicy krwi w podostrym zatruciu chlorpyrifosem), jak i dane z piśmiennictwa sugerują, że narażenie na insektycydy fosforoorganiczne może sprzyjać rozwojowi cukrzycy. U osób mających zawodowy kontakt z tymi związkami konieczne jest więc częstsze wykonywanie badań diagnostycznych w kierunku jej wczesnego wykrycia. Med. Pr. 2013;64(4):527–531
2
Content available remote Activities of brain antioxidant enzymes, lipid and protein peroxidation
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EN
Organophosphate pesticides are known to induce oxidative stress and cause oxidative tissue damage, as has been reported in studies concerning acute and chronic intoxication with these compounds. Our objective was to investigate the activities of brain antioxidant enzymes and malonyldialdehyde, as well as the level of carbonyl groups, in rats sub-chronically intoxicated with chlorpyrifos at doses of 0.2, 2 and 5 mg per kg of body weight per day. It was found that chlorpyrifos induces change in brain antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidise, but to a different degree in comparison to proper control values; however, the elevated antioxidant enzymes activities failed to check lipid and protein peroxidation in the brains of rats. Thus, in sub-chronic intoxication with chlorpyrifos, as evidenced by increased level of malonyldialdehyde and carbonyl groups, oxidative stress is induced. Measurements of protein carbonyl groups appeared to give more consistent responses in the rats’ brains when compared to the malonyldialdehyde level after sub-chronic chlorpyrifos treatment.
EN
Chlorfenvinphos is an organophosphate insecticide, posing a risk to those who are professionally involved in its production and use in agriculture, as well as to the general population. Organophosphates (OPs) are the class of insecticides, whose primary target is acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, a major neurotransmitter at the central and peripheral neuronal synapses. Moreover, many authors postulate that these compounds, both in acute and chronic intoxication, change the activities of antioxidative enzymes, thus leading to the enhancement of lipid peroxidation in many tissues. In the current study, animals received once a day, intragastrically with a stomach tube, 0.1ml/100g of olive oil (control groups) and oil solution of chlorfenvinphos at a dose of 0.02LD50 (0.3 mg/kg b. w.) - the experimental groups. The animals were sacrificed on day 14 or on day 28 of exposure. In the kidneys of rats, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well as reduced glutathione level (GSH) were determined. Chlorfenvinphos administration resulted in increased activities of antioxidative enzymes in the kidney of rats. Renal activities of SOD, GPx and GR were more pronounced on day 28 of chlorfenvinphos exposure than on day 14. The kidney reduced glutathione level (GSH) did not change in comparison to the control level. The current experimental findings indicate that subchronic administration of chlorfenvinphos leads to an adaptive response in the kidney of rats and this response is mostly due to reduced glutathione level and glutathione metabolism.
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