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Content available remote Dywergencja i konwergencja w rozwoju europejskiej polityki społecznej
The article considers in which ways European welfare states are becoming more similar and in which ones they continue to differ. On the one hand, historical and institutional differences at national level lead to coexistence of different welfare regimes, and to divergence rather than convergence in social policy. The author identifies five principal types of welfare states in Europe: the continental, Anglo-Saxon, Nordic, Mediterranean and post-Communist ones. On the other hand, globalization, regional integration, demographic changes and other similar or common challenges lead to a higher degree of convergence in social policies among European countries. The European Union sets as one of its objectives to decrease diversity among Member States in terms of social protection policies. In practice, however, despite some evidence of welfare state convergence, the process is far from impressive. It is also debatable whether the superimposition of a single European Social Model is likely to undermine the reforming efforts of the EU countries in the area of social policy.
The article has been divided into two parts. In the first one the author presents dominant trends of the contemporary academic discourse over the European social policy, in the context of progressive europeization in this field as well and on the level of comparative research. The second part of the article depicts results of studies led among central level politicians (members of parliament, members of government) conducted by each national research team within the framework of the PROFIT project. The starting point of the research was the assumption that the way politicians contextualize the problem of social inequalities inheritance and politicians' opinions about the phenomenon of IIofI can considerably influence the mode state's priorities concerning social policy are being formulated.
The primary objective of the article is an analysis of institutional and structural reforms of the European Union which were introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, from the viewpoint of European social policy. The article shows that changes introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon are evolving, and certainly do not represent fundamental reforms which were insisted by the supporters of 'Social Europe' in the course of work on the treaty, first constitutional, then reforming the European Union. The impact of 'Europe 2020' on the development of the social dimension of European integration is also limited. The strategy strengthened the process of coordination of EU social policy, but the actual contribution to the development of social Europe will depend on the political will of EU member states.
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