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Background: The purpose of this work was to present a model which shows the efficiency of the actions in the game of soccer, based on observations of 7 final tournament matches during the European Championships in 2008. The successful teams were analyzed from the quarterfinals to the final match. Activity, effectiveness and reliability, during both offensive and defensive actions, were subject to this examination.Material/Methods: The material consisted of the audio-visual records gathered from 7 matches which had been played in the final tournament in the 2008 European Championships. The gathered data was put on the special observation sheet in accordance with the Panfil's design.Results: It has been ascertained that the most effective actions are those of possessing the ball and the actions of gaining the field, while the rate of scoring goals is similar to that which had been observed during finals in other top soccer tournaments. Additionally, in the defensive actions the best players manifest higher reliability in co-operation than in individual actions.Conclusions: In the top-level competitions, group/team actions prevailed over individual ones. The examined players manifested nearly the same efficiency in scoring like those who took part in the finals of the World and continental championships. The players regarded as champions made use of various individual actions against their opponents with a ball, depending on the implemented game tasks.The models which illustrate the efficiency of actions in soccer, at the top-level competition should be used for creating ideal models which will design the game of players of lower sport competence.
The article deals with the description of football hooligans in the countries of Visegrad Group (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary). Text describes history of this phenomenon in the central Europe in the context of European Football Championships of 2012 and 2016. Particular hooligans’ groups, the basic characteristics, relations and manifestations of these groups are briefly presented. In the final part there are outlined particular actors participating in tackling with football hooligans, including legislative procedures stemming from European Convention. In the conclusion itself there is discussed also police’ cooperation during big football championships.
Content available remote The Efficiency Model of Goalkeeper's Actions in Soccer
Background: The purpose of this paper was to present cognitive models illustrating efficiency of the goalkeeper's actions in soccer based on observation of play in selected matches of the Euro 2008 finals.Material/Methods: The observation method was used in the study. The play of both goalkeepers was analysed in 7 soccer matches in a cup phase of the European Championships which took place in Portugal in 2008. The data was recorded on the authors' observation forms. Activity, effectiveness and reliability during both offensive and defensive actions were subject to this examination.Results: It was revealed that most actions of the goalkeeper are aimed at taking control of the field of play or keeping possession of the ball; creating goal scoring opportunity represents only a small percentage of offensive actions. Defensive actions are generally performed individually and the highest reliability is reported while catching the ball.Conclusions: Efficiency models of goalkeepers' actions should be used to create models of play for players representing a lower level of sports competence in order to improve the effectiveness of their game play. One should continue further study to improve a research tool so as to evaluate other, important from the point of view of the game's objectives, actions definitely dependent on team mates' behavior.
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