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EN
A two factor field experiment in split-plot design was carried out in the years 1996-1999 on a good rye complex in Agricultural Experiment Station Lipki near Stargard Szczeciński. In the experiment two cultivars were considered: ‘Arka’ (fodder cultivar) and ‘Niga’ (lawn cultivar) and four seeding rates (10, 13, 16 and 19 kg ha⁻¹). Detailed research included biometrics measurement and seed yield. The experiment was set up in spring with seeds bcing sown into spring barley as a companion crop harvested for seeds. The obtained results of seed yield show that their value depends on the year of utilisation. The morphological character of plants is also in great part modified by the studied factors .
EN
The analysis includes the comparison of four multi-annual experiment results, where some features of weed seeds accumulated in soil were studied depending on various methods of soil cultivation, a traditional ploughing and simplified ones: direct drilling, rotary tillage at 10 cm depth, ploughing at 15 cm. The number of weed seeds in the ploughed layer in particular experiments ranged from 8.8 thousand to 70 thousand per 1 m2. Most seeds were found in the oldest experimental fields with less chemical weed control. The simplified cultivation led to increase in the number of seeds by about 50% or 100%. The reason for this was the accumulation of seeds in the surface layers and good storage of great seed quantities formerly accumulated in the undisturbed soil layers. The seeds remained for many years in the untouched layers sprouted similarly to those in the cultivated layers.
EN
There is little consistent evidence for evolutionary associations from seed production to seedling fitness. In this study, 20 species of Rhododendron genus were selected from subtropical forests of southwest China; the life-history functional traits such as the seed size, seed number per twig, germination traits, dispersal and seedling survival were investigated, the ecological relationships among them were tested and the advantages of small-seeded species were discussed. The results show that the quantitative parameters of germination, such as the germination rate, potential, and index are positively correlated with seed number produced per stem, while temporal parameters, such as germination peak timing and duration are positively correlated with seed size. The two results indicate that different Rhododendron species with different seed sizes and relative seed number can deal with varying environments according to spatial dispersal or time dispersal, respectively, and the advantages of smaller seeds in the aspect of sprouting vigour, dispersal ability and seedling survival may lay the foundation for the establishment of small-seeded plants in the forest.
PL
Badano zależności między morfologią kwiatów marchwi męskosterylnych i męskopłodnych linii hodowlanych i zdolnością do wytwarzania nasion. W badanej populacji męskosterylnych roślin marchwi kwiaty charakteryzowały się przekształceniem pręcików w dodatkowe struktury płatkopodobne o różnych kształtach. W niektórych pylnikopodobnych strukturach kwiatu stwierdzono obecność degenerującej tkanki sporogennej. Wyniki obserwacji i analiz mikroskopowych pozwalają twierdzić, że na obniżenie produktywności nasion linii hodowlanych marchwi mogły mieć wpływ defekty i nieprawidłowości morfologiczno-funkcjonalne kwiatów roślin ojcowskich oraz matecznych. Degeneracja pyłku, brak warstwy endotecjum, decydującej o otwieraniu się pylnika, wzrost łagiewek pyłkowych po zewnętrznej powierzchni szyjki słupka należały do najczęściej występujących ograniczeń w ilości pyłku aktywnego w zapłodnieniu. Cechy męskosterylnych roślin matecznych utrudniające proces zawiązywaniu nasion to: zielona barwa płatków, redukcja miodników, deformacje słupków, brak zalążni, degeneracja zalążków lub zarodków. Najmniej nasion wytworzyły rośliny z licznymi deformacjami morfologicznymi znamion słupka i miodników. Kwiaty roślin męskosterylnych o białych płatkach, dużych miodnikach i wysokich, podwójnych słupkach wydały najwięcej nasion, gdyż były prawdopodobnie najbardziej atrakcyjne dla zapylających owadów.
EN
The aim of study was to examine relation between flower morphology of male-sterile (CMS) as well as male-fertile breeding lines of carrot and its fertility and ability of seed setting. Stereoscopic microscope, electron scanning microscope and light microscope with polarization and UV lamp were used in research. In examined male- sterile carrot population the flowers rods were transformed into additional petal-like structures of different shapes. It was observed that in particular anther-like structures of flower degenerate the sporogenic tissue. As a result of observations and microscope analysis it is claimed that lower production of carrot breeding line seeds could be caused by defects and morphological-functional abnormalities of mother and father-parental flowers. Degeneration of pollen, the absence of endothecium, which is always responsible for opening the anthers and growth of pollen tubes on the external area of the pistil, had also influence on restrictions in the number of pollen active in fertilization. Specific traits of male-sterile mother plants which inhibited process of seed setting were: green colour of petals, floral nectaries reduction, pistils deformation, ovule and embryo degeneration. The lowest amount of seeds were produced by plants with many stigma pistil and nectaries deformations. Male-sterile plants of white flower petals, big nectaries, exposed, doubled pistils and big ovaries produced more seeds than the other mother plants.
EN
Results of statistical analysis of 112,136 seeds extracted from 376 fir Abies alba Mill. cones are given. The cones were collected in the Babia Góra National Park and its surroundings, and in the Gorce N.P. The analysis concerns a total number of seeds in a cone, number of viable and infertile seeds, and also seeds damaged by Resseliella piceae Seitn. The Kоlmogorov-Smirnov's test for general characteristics of variables was used. This test has shown that number distributions of mentioned seed groups were symmetrical. Also, coefficients of linear and partial correlation, as well as equations of multiple regression line were calculated for distinguished seed groups. Values of coefficients of the equations of multiple regression line in all studied areas were statistically significant at 0.001 level. It was stated that there exists a positive correlation between the total number of seeds in a cone and their damage by R. piceae.
PL
Badania prowadzono na kępach kosaćców rosnących w otwartym polu: kosaćca trawiastego (I. graminea L.), kosaćca żółtego (I. pseudacorus L.) i na dwóch formach A i B kosaćca syberyjskiego (Iris sibirica L.). Uzyskane owoce i nasiona były efektem zapylenia swobodnego. Biometryczne pomiary torebek nasiennych, liczby nasion i masy 1000 nasion pokazały, że największe torebki i najcięższe nasiona ma kosaciec żółty. Odnotowano istnienie wyraźnej zależności pomiędzy wielkością torebek a liczbą nasion. Stała korelacja pomiędzy obiema cechami we wszystkich latach, bez względu na pogodę, występowała u kosaćca trawiastego. Ilość opadów wpływała różnie na wykształcenie nasion u badanych gatunków kosaćców.
EN
The studies were carried out on seven year old clumps of: I. graminae L., forms A and B of Iris sibirica L. and I. pseudacorus L. All of them were free pollinated. The biometrical comparison of seed pods, number and weight of 1000 seeds showed that the biggest and heaviest seeds (52 g) were produced by the yellow flag. There was a significant correlation between the size of seed pods and number of seeds in them. In spite of the weather, the constant correlation between these two characteristics was noted in Iris graminea. The sum of rainfall affected the fructification and seed formation in various iris species to different degree.
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