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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, fibrates and thiazolidinediones, are commonly used drugs in the treatment of dyslipidemia and diabetes. Their targets, PPARα and PPARγ, have also been shown to have a role in the regulation of inflammatory responses linking metabolism and inflammation. In the present study we investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on macrophage activation. In addition to the proinflammatory classical activation, we also focused on interleukin (IL) 4 and 13 -induced alternative activation which is a significant macrophage phenotype in tissue repairing processes and in fibrosing diseases. PPARα agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate as well as PPARγ agonist GW1929 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced classical macrophage activation and production of the characteristic biomarkers of this phenotype, i.e. IL-6 and nitric oxide, in murine J774 macrophages. Remarkably, the PPARα agonists also inhibited IL-4 and IL-13 –induced expression of alternative activation markers arginase-1, fizz1 and mannose receptor 1 whereas the PPARγ agonist GW1929 enhanced their expression in J774 macrophages. The PPARα agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate also attenuated the production of alternative activation markers chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 13 and plateletderived growth factor in human THP-1 macrophages. The present findings show that PPARα and PPARγ agonists differently regulate classical and alternative macrophage phenotypes. Furthermore, PPARα activation was introduced as a novel concept to down-regulate alternative macrophage activation indicating that PPARα agonists have therapeutic potential in conditions associated with aberrant alternative macrophage activation such as fibrosing diseases.
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. At every phase of cancer development, the inflammatory process has an important impact. Accurate assessment inflammatory cells in the tumour environment in conjunction with clinico-pathologic features can be a relevant prognostic or predictive parameter. Purpose: To analyse inflammatory cell infiltration in CRC tumour mass and correlate with chosen clinico-pathologic parameters. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 160 patients (64 women, 96 men) diagnosed with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery. Tissue material obtained from routine histopathological diagnosis was stained with H&E and used to assess the type of inflammatory cells in the invasive front and centre of the tumour. Results were subjected to statistical analysis with the age and gender of patients, tumour localization, tumour growth and size, TNM stage, adenocarcinoma type, fibrosis, necrosis, metastasis and tumour invasion (by the Spearman’s correlation coefficient test). Results: The presence of neutrophils in the invasive front of tumour mass was associated with fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the invasive front of tumour. Macrophages in the invasive front of tumour were found to correlate with tumour growth (expanding and infiltrate). Macrophages and eosinophils were associated with inflammatory cell infiltration in the invasive front and in the centre of tumour. Conclusions: The type of inflammatory cells in the invasive front or centre of the tumour may be useful to prognoses clinical features of colorectal cancer
Currently, liver disease is widespread and the awareness of these diseases is low. Early symptoms of liver disease do not necessarily indicate problems with this organ and patients are usually informed of their problems when the stage of the disease is already advanced. Invasive biopsies are the clinical diagnostic method most commonly used in the evaluation of liver disease. A biopsy is associated with a high risk of false results and additional complications. Finding new non-invasive imaging methods has led to the discovery of a new method called Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE). This technique allows one to evaluate the mechanical properties of tissues and to distinguish between pathological states. Testing using this technique can be performed on a conventional magnetic resonance system by using few additional components and properly prepared software. Studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between MRE-measured liver stiffness and the degree of fibrosis. MRE is also useful in characterizing liver tumors. Studies show that this technique is highly credible in both health volunteers and patients with liver fibrosis. MRE has tremendous diagnostic potential. The described technique is not currently widely used and has the 127-132potential to serve as a safe and accurate alternative in clinical diagnostics in the future.
Introduction. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is excessive fat build-up in the liver due to causes other than alcohol use. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Liv.52 DS tablets in the management of NAFLD. Material and methods. Prospective, interventional clinical study conducted on 60 patients of both sex, aged between 18-65 years, confirmed with NAFLD from clinical examination, laboratory test, ultrasound findings and those willing to give informed consent. All patients received Liv.52 DS at a dose of 2 tablets twice daily for 2 months. All patients were evaluated at baseline, end of 1st month, and end of 2nd month for liver function tests, hepatomegaly by ultrasound, NAFLD Fibrosis Score, lipid profile, hematology and biochemical investigations. Results. Study data was analyzed with GraphPad Prism Software Version 6.07. Data of those patients who completed the study was considered for analysis. Significant improvement in hepatomegaly, liver enzymes was observed. NAFLD fibrosis score revealed no progression of liver fibrosis due to NAFLD during the study period. No abnormal lab values were recorded and there were no adverse events reported during the study. Conclusion. Study concludes that Liv.52 DS is safe and beneficial in individuals suffering from NAFLD.
The common pathway leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is growing deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). It results from molecular and histological rearrangement of collagens, glycoproteins and hyaluronans. Hyaluronic acid is a chief component of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues and plays the main structural role in the formation of ECM. The most important organ involved in the synthesis of hyaluronic acid is the liver. In this paper the meaning of hyaluronic acid in the diagnostics of liver diseases is discussed. Here, we focus on the described changes of hyaluronic acid concentration in the pathological processes of the liver, including alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. The results of published clinical studies have shown its high diagnostic sensitivity, which probably enables its application in laboratory diagnosis.
Wstęp: HCV stanowi poważny problem w praktyce medycznej. Większość powikłań w przebiegu chorób wątroby jest konsekwencją zaawansowanego włóknienia prowadzącego nawet do marskości wątroby. Cel pracy: Celem niniejszych badań jest analiza wybranych czynników ryzyka rozwoju włóknienia wątroby u osób z zakażeniem hcv. Materiał i metody: Materiał badawczy stanowiła grupa pacjentów mieszkających na terenie województwa śląskiego. Badaną grupę stanowiły 102 osoby w wieku 13-70 lat. chorzy diagnozowani byli na oddziałach chorób zakaźnych i chorób wewnętrznych z podejrzeniem hcv. Ostateczne rozpoznanie ustalono na podstawie wywiadu z pacjentami oraz oceny histopatologicznej biopsji wątroby. Wyniki: W niniejszych badaniach udział wzięło 66 mężczyzn i 36 kobiet. Przedział wiekowy 13-23 lat stanowi 7,8%, 13, 7% to populacja w wieku 24-34 lat, 32, 4% to badani w wieku 35-45 lat, 27, 5% - pacjenci w przedziale wiekowym 46-56 lat, 16, 7% to populacja w wieku 57-67 lat, 1,9% badanych stanowiła grupa powyżej 67 roku życia. nadwaga występowała u 55,9% badanych, 76, 5% populacji to osoby palące. Wnioski: Na podstawie analizy badań stwierdza się, że wirus hcv z postępującym włóknieniem najczęściej występuje w przedziale wiekowym 35-45 lat, częściej wśród mężczyzn niż wśród kobiet. większość badanych to osoby palące papierosy oraz osoby z nadwagą.
Introduction: Hcv constitutes a serious problem in medical practice. Most complications in the course of the disease derive from advanced fibrosis leading even to the liver cirrhosis. Aim of the research: The aim of the research is the analysis of some selected risk factors of the development of fibrosis in patients with hcv and the frequency of the virus infections in The Silesia Region. Material and methods: The material was collected from the patients living in The Region of Silesia. The population for the research consisted of 102 patients at the age of 13 – 70. The patients were diagnosed as sufering from hcv by The Infectious and Internal Diseases Departments. The final diagnosis was made after interviewing the patients and the examinations of histopathological liver biopsy. The results: There were 66 males and 36 females participating in the research. Patients aged 13-23 ( 13) constituted 7,8 per cent, 24-34 (32) 7 per cent, 35-45 (27) 4 per cent, 46-56 (16) 5 per cent, 57-67 7 per cent and 2 per cent of patients over 67. 55,9 per cent of the patients were overweight and 76,5 per cent smokers. Conclusions: Taking into account the research analysis, it might be concluded that the hcv virus accompanied by liver fibrosis is found most often in the group of patients aged 35-45 and more often in males than in females. Most research patients are overweight and smoke cigarettes.
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