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The Polana Mountain and Polana region are associated with highlanders and their dispersed farmsteads ('laznicke osidlenie'). They are remarkable for their natural and cultural values. The origins of the settlements founded by highlanders coincide with the earliest waves of colonists (Wallachians and small peasants) reaching this region. Industrialization, the growth of new housing estates and the concentration of social-economic activities in several regional centres altered the character of the area. Only after 1990 - when job opportunities were much reduced in local factories - the previous long-lasting trends begin to change and in a number of mountain farms economic activities have been restored. Related with this is the decreased rate of depopulation tendencies. Against the trend of threatening these farmsteads with decay came the trend of their regeneration linked with the conversion of these holdings into permanent or at least temporary holiday housing facilities. Comparatively a great advantage of this region lies in an immense variety of local colours, which may be employed in a sensitive and attractive way.
The paper deals with the problem of socio-cultural change connected with the social conflict. The author emphasizes the problem of social agency and its position in the attempts to understand the dynamics and the character of socio-cultural changes. One of the possible attempts in catching the never-ending combats of the mankind, conflicting tensions in inter-group and inter-personal relations is the novel by Czech writer Vladimir Paral 'Milenci a vrazi' (Lovers and Murders). The construction of the Paral's novel is based on the model of combat between 'the conquerors' and 'the besieged', 'The Reds' and 'The Blue'. Similarly the author analyzes and interprets scientific publications by Sona Svecova, first of all her monograph from the year 1984, based on her long-term ethnographic research of the dispersed settlement in the highlands of Krupinska planina. Svecova analysed ethnographic data directly related to socio-cultural changes with very similar character to Paral's expressive interpretation.
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