The author considers in detail the attitude of political subjects and regional communities to decentralization of state power. Texts of the programs of political parties and a discourse of political applications of representatives of different political forces have been analyzed. Special attention is concentrated on the analysis of results of the population inquiries concerning the expansion of rights of the regions and local communities. The results permit speaking about specificity of decentralization estimation (as political interest) by political subjects and regional communities. If for the former rather separate components of power decentralization are of practical interest than federation of the country as a whole. Then for population of a number of regions the autonomism is rather the self-defense. The autonomistic interests, more expressed in certain regions, are determined by the external (attitude to the union of Ukraine with Russia and Belarus, prospects of joining NATO) and language factors. But results of the inquiry of people from AP of the Crimea permit supposing that the autonomy in the Crimea is not the efficient mechanism for realization of interests of the Crimean regional community.