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PL
Badanie polegało na określeniu wpływu preparatu biologicznego (B) na liczebność bakterii fermentacji mlekowej, Enterobacteriaceae, pleśni i drożdży w kiszonce z sorgo (Sorghum saccharaturri) Sucrosorgo 506 (Syngenta-Sedds). Analiza chemiczna obejmowała określenie zawartości suchej masy, cukrów rozpuszczalnych w wodzie (WSC), kwasu masłowego, kwasu mlekowego, kwasu octowego, białka, etanolu i pH. Zastosowanie preparatu biologicznego (B) spowodowało obniżenie liczebności drożdży i Enterobacteriaceae oraz wzrost liczebności bakterii mlekowych. Liczebność komórek drożdży uległa obniżeniu (P<0,05) z 4,42 jtk 104 g-1 s.m. w kontroli do 2,03 jtk 104 g-1 s.m. w kombinacji z dodatkiem biologicznym (B). Zastosowany inokulant wpły-nął na podwyższenie (P<0,05) koncentracji suchej masy i kwasu mlekowego oraz obniżył (P<0,05) poziom cukrów rozpuszczalnych w wodzie i etanolu. Zawartość zearalenonu była wyższa w zielonce z sorgo (2,39 ug kg-1) niż w kiszonkach (CSS - 0,05 ug kg-1 i B - 0,04 ug kg-1). Zastosowany preparat biologiczny nie miał wpływu na zawartość zearalenonu w kiszonkach.
EN
The aim of these studies was to ascertain the influence of biological additive (B) of the celi counts of lactic acld bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould fungi and yeasts in sorghum silage. The silage was pre-pared from sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharaturri) Sucrosorgo 506 (Syngenta-Sedds). The effect of the applied additive on silage was ascertained. The performed chemical analyses comprised the determination of: the content of dry matter, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), butyric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, crude protein, ethanol and pH. The applied biological preparation (B) was found to reduce numbers of yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae and increased count of lactic acid bacteria. The yeasts cell count decreased (P<0.05) from 4,42 cfu 104 g-1 DM in the control (CSS - control sorghum silage) to 2,03 cfu 104 g-1 DM in combination with biological additive (B). The applied inoculants increased (P<0.05) the content of dry matter, lactic acid, and decreased (P<0.05) concentration of WSC, etanol. Zearalenone content in fresh crop was higher (2,39 ug kg -1) than sorghum silages (CSS - 0,05 ug kg-1 and B - 0,04 ug kg-1). The biological additive do not influence of the zearalenon concentration in silages.
PL
Przeprowadzono badania fotokatalitycznego utleniania zearalenonu oraz wysokocząsteczkowych substancji organicznych (określanych przez pomiar absorbancji w UV = 254 nm) w roztworach wodnych. Badania prowadzono w reaktorze z lampą zanurzeniową przy użyciu zawiesiny TiO2. Badano wpływ czasu naświetlania, składu fizyczno- chemicznego roztworu oraz stężenia katalizatora na stopień utleniania związków organicznych. Przebieg fotokatalitycznego utleniania opisano wyznaczając czas połowicznego rozkładu zanieczyszczeń oraz stałe szybkości reakcji według modelu Langmuira-Hinshelwood’a (L-H).
EN
The study of the photocatalytic oxidation of zearalenone and high molecular weight organic substances (determined by the absorbance at UV=254 nm) in water solutions was performed. Experiments were carried out in the reactor equipped with the immersed lamp in the presence of suspended TiO2. The influence of the exposure time, physicochemical composition of the solution and the catalyst concentration on the oxidation degree of organic compounds was investigated. The photocatalytic oxidation was characterized by the determination of half-life of contaminants and degradation rate constants according to Langmuira-Hinshelwood’a (L-H) model.
EN
Results of the study on the effectiveness of zearalenone removal via ozonation and integrated ozonation/nanofiltration water treatment are presented. The influence of ozone dose, contact time, pH and water properties on ozonation performance was investigated. The study shows that application of integrated system of ozonation and nanofiltration is advantageous according to the effectiveness of zearalenone and other water contaminants removal as well as membrane capacity.
PL
Zaprezentowano wyniki badań dotyczące efektywności usuwania zearalenonu w procesie ozonowania i w zintegrowanym układzie oczyszczania wody ozonowanie/nanofiltracja. W trakcie ozonowania badano wpływ dawki ozonu, czasu kontaktu, pH i rodzaju wody na stopień usunięcia zearalenonu. Wyniki wskazują, że zastosowanie układu zintegrowanego kojarzącego ozonowanie z nanofiltracją jest korzystne pod względem efektywności usuwania zearalenonu oraz innych wskaźników zanieczyszczenia wody, a także biorąc pod uwagę wydajność membrany.
EN
Oestrus status without standing reflex is enumerated among the typical clinical signs of zearalenone mycotoxicosis in sexually immature gilts. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a low dose of zearalenone applied per os for 7 days on the morphometric results of the organs of the reproductive system in sexually immature gilts that were and that were not subjected to ovariectomy. Zearalenone and α-zearalenole were determined in blood plasma with the common use of separation methods with the columns of immunological affinity and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection. Tissues of the reproductive system were taken directly after the slaughter (on day 8 of the experiment) for morphometric examinations. The study was carried out on twelve 4 months old gilts, at 38-45 kg of body weight. The results obtained showed that per os application of zearalenone at a dose of 200 µg /kg b.w. for 7 days evoked signs of apparent sexual readiness without standing reflex in gilts after ovariectomy and in physiologically efficient gilts. The level of α-zearalenole had been significantly increased and zearalenone had been noted in blood serum before these signs appeared. Double and triple enlargement of the uterus was noted in both experimental groups. The mass and volume of the ovaries in physiologically efficient gilts diminished about 50%.
EN
The aim of the study was to determine the immunolocation of VEGF in the ovarian tissues of 60-day-old gilts. The animals were divided into 5 groups (n=3), depending on the level of feed contamination with natural (ZENn) and/or crystal zearalenone (ZENk) and/or no addition of Fix-A-Tox, mycotoxin absorber and Mycofix Plus causing ZEN chemical degradation. The feed of control groups K1 and K2 contained low levels of ZENn, but group K2 had three times higher levels of ZEN than group K1, and no F-A-T agents or Mycofix Plus. Only group K1 had healthy ovarian tissues displaying VEGF immunoreactivity in the endothelium of the capillaries (mainly circumfollicular) and in the endothelium of the ovarian hilus vessels and epithelial layer. In group K2 the high level of ZENk may have been the major cause of follicular cell degradation, which formed aggregate bundles having strong VEGF immunoreactivity. In groups D1, D2 and D3, immunoreactivity in the ovarian tissues differed in particular structures. In group D1 degeneration was observed in all follicles, including primary and various sized secondary follicles. The most intensive VEGF immunoreactions were characterized by the remains of the oocyt nucleus, ovarian epithelium and blood vessels wall of the ovarian hilus. The most intensive changes were observed in ovaries originating from group D2. Despite the addition of F-A-T absorber, the cell bundles were visible in all ovarian cortexes. Only some small fragments displayed positive VEGF immunoreactivity. D3 was the only experimental group in which reconstruction of the ovarian tissues was possible. After using VEGF the immunoreactions revealed that although various elements had degenerated, some of them still retained both the structure of various sized follicles as well as a developing capillary network. In this case it can not be excluded that Mycofix Plus significantly influenced the absorption of mycotoxin, which, depending on its level in the diet can lead to the complete destruction of ovaries in pigs.
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