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EN
Using the Duncan-Hoffman model, the paper estimates returns for educational mismatch using comparable micro data for 25 European countries. The aim is to gauge the extent to which the main empirical regularities shown in other papers on the subject are confirmed by this data base. Based on tests proposed by Hartog and Oosterbeek, the author also considers whether the observed empirical patterns accord with the Mincerian basic human-capital model and Thurow's job-competition model. Heckman's sample-selection estimator shows the returns to be fairly consistent with those found in the literature; the job-competition model and the Mincerian human-capital model can be rejected for most countries.
EN
The small enterprises' activities on the regional service's market (on the example of the Transcarpathian region) were analysed as well as features of the effective small business formation in conditions of market transformations of economy of the region. The economic and social efficiency of small enterprises on the regional market of services is assessed. Contradictions in activities of small enterprises are exposed on analysing the indices of their effectiveness.
EN
Who becomes a teacher in Hungary today? Do those applying for teacher training or choosing the teaching profession differ from those continuing their studies in other subjects or choosing other careers? What role is played in choosing the teaching profession by the earnings attainable as a teacher or in other careers? The findings of research into these questions show the presence of negative self-selection at every point in the process of selecting teachers - applying for teacher training, finding employment after finishing higher education, and in the fifth and sixth years after qualifying. Those who apply for college-level teacher training have worse capabilities. The less talented of the graduates are more likely to take teaching jobs, and they are more likely to be found among those in their fifth or sixth year of a teaching career. Allowing for the effect of selection distortion, the study shows that the decisive factor in the choice of the teaching profession is the difference of attainable earnings between non-teaching and teaching jobs.
EN
The paper critically analyzes the main approaches to remuneration (in the context of world and national experience and practice) investigated the minimum wage, their correlation with subsistence and household consumer basket. Based on the global and national experience different approaches to software productivity and corresponding systems of remuneration, defined dependence (correlation) between productivity and wages.
EN
The paper builds on an inter-temporal model of an open economy to formulate the hypothesis of the dependence of real exchange rate on labour productivity. The model is formulated under those assumption on which rests the Balassa-Samuelson theorem. The hypothesis is tested using co-integration technique and vector error correction model. Usually, testing the Balassa-Samuelson effect gives mixed results, sometimes finding the opposite reaction of the real exchange rate to the one predicted by the Balassa-Samuelson theorem, pointing to the restrictive nature of the assumptions on which it is based. The analysis shows a little supportive evidence for the Balassa-Samuelson effect. However, according to the analysis the effect of labour productivity on the real exchange rate can hardly be considered as clear-cut as predicted by the Balassa-Samuelson theorem.
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