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The aim of this article is to analyze the main contributions of Wesley C. Salmon to the philosophy of science, that is, his concepts of causation, common cause, and theoretical explanation, and to provide a critique of them. This critique will be based on a comparison of Salmon's concepts with categories developed by Hegel in his 'Science of Logic' and which can be applied to issues treated by Salmon by means of the above given three concepts. It is the author's contention that by means of Hegelian categories it becomes possible to provide a critique of Salmon's philosophy of science and at the same time to enlarge the concept framework of philosophy of science.
Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century. His pivotal work is Negative Dialectic (1966). It presents the methodology of his critical thought and aesthetic analyses, the source of the categories, concepts, and theories through which his philosophical thinking operates and develops. I argue for that his methodology has its roots not only in Western metaphysical thought (Kantian, Hegelian) and an anti-metaphysical materialism (Marx), but that an equally important, but almost forgotten source is traditional Jewish thought: Luria’s cabbalah in G. Scholem’s interpretation, and its creative assimilation in the theories of W. Benjamin, E. Bloch or R. Rosenzweig. I therefore describe this vanishing context of Adorno’ s philosophy: Scholem’s thesis of cabbalistic revelation as an insignificant “pure language”; Benjamin’s theory of language as a phenomenon-constellation and presentation of ideas; Bloch’s concept of “traces” as a paradoxical presence of revelation; Rosenzweig’s theory of salvation and its immanent critique of Hegelian Reason as Totality. My goal is to show the specificity and creative continuation of above ideas in Negative Dialectic. I thus underline the importance of the relationship between Western thought and the Jewish tradition, renewed by Adorno’s work.
Content available remote O związkach między wielością dyskursów metafizycznych a pojęciem bytu
The aim of the paper is to argue that there is a mutual relationship between the concept of being as it is conceived of in the classical Aristotelian metaphysics and the plurality of possible metaphysical discourses. That thesis is rooted in the inherent ambiguity of the concept of being and some consequences connected therewith. Three forms of metaphysical thinking are taken into account: the metaphysics of formal interpretation of the concept of being, metaphysics of existential determination of being, and metaphysics of the material content of every conceptual representation of being.
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