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EN
The following article provides a brief introduction to the graph theory. It shows two types of models which have been developed using the graph theory. Additionally presented are conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy. The article covers the three elements of the network such as the they are straight pipe and change of the flow direction and a circular arc. These elements are described by the rules of behavior. Identified and described the patterns of loss coefficients.
PL
Artykuł stanowi krótkie wprowadzenie do teorii grafów. Przedstawiono w nim dwa rodzaje modeli utworzonych za pomocą teorii grafów. Dodatkowo opisano zasady zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Uwzględniono podstawowe elementy sieci, takie jak rura prosta oraz łuk kołowy i zmiana kierunku przepływu. Elementy te opisano za pomocą zasad zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Określono i opisano wzory na współczynniki strat.
2
Content available remote Kształtowanie granic zgrupowań organizacji
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PL
Artykuł nawiązuje do problematyki kształtowania efektywnych zgrupowań organizacji w warunkach ekonomii opartej na wiedzy, ze szczególnym wyeksponowaniem zagadnienia kształtowania ich efektywnych granic. Autor, opisując współczesne zjawisko powstania sieci organizacji, podkreśla znaczenie organizacji zajmujących się zarządzaniem tymi sieciami. Centra strategiczne spełniają rolę przedsiębiorcy, którego ważnym zadaniem jest kształtowanie granic zgrupowania organizacji.
EN
The following article addresses shaping of effective networks of organizations in the knowledge based economy issue with putting special emphasis on effective boundaries shaping issue. In the context of contemporary phenomenon of shaping of the organizational networks author stresses the meaning of strategic centers going about organizational networks management. According to the author one of the most crucial task facing strategic centers is drawing effective network boundaries.
PL
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EN
One of the distinctive features of contemporary organisations is their interconnectedness. Relationships between companies are usually analysed on the basis of social network relationships between them. The research question this article aims to answer concerns the influence of being part of an interorganisational network on the occurrence and consequences of unethical behaviour.This paper covers three main areas of research regarding this topic. Firstly, the role networks play in the initiation, evolution, and consequences of wrongdoings. The main problem taken into consideration in this part of the article is identifying network factors which increase and mitigate the propensity of organisations to deceive their partners. Two main types of such determinants include relational and structural factors. The first group usually involves features such as the strength of ties, the symmetry/asymmetry of ties, and the status of partners. The latter includes such variables as structural holes, centrality, density and the cohesiveness of the network. The second area covered in this article concerns how misconduct behaviours spread throughout the network of interorganisational ties. This phenomenon might resemble a social or emotional contagion occurring in social networks. The effects of unethical acts on the network are the main interest of the third part of this paper. Usually, the consequences of wrongdoing by one of the interconnected partners include a change in the quality of the related partners, modifications in the structure of the network, and an alteration of its prominence and cohesion. In conclusion, there are some suggestions for lines of inquiry in the area of unethical behaviour from the social network perspective in the future.
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EN
The article takes the issue of local government evolution under the influence of local governance and networked governance conceptions. Its purpose is to determine the changes in local government in respect of: functions, methods to provide the public services and relationships with citizens. Research shows that Polish municipalities have numerous functional relations with external parties. Still, local leaders do not accept network in the local policy.
PL
Powszechnie uważa się, że rozwój małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw w Polsce jest ograniczony przede wszystkim barierami kapitałowymi. Nie podważając tego sądu, należy zwrócić uwagę na inną barierę, jaką jest podtrzymywanie przez firmy z tych grup tendencji zachowania pełnej samodzielności i odrębności. Opcją nowej formy działalności jest włączenie do grupy tworzącej sieć. Utworzenie i funkcjonowanie sieci wymaga od uczestników wypracowania zasad współpracy i wzajemnego respektowania niezależności. Obserwacje funkcjonujących sieci przedsiębiorstw sugerują wyraźnie, że czuwanie nad poprawnością funkcjonowania nie może ograniczyć się do standardowych zadań controllingu. Niezbędne staje się dostrzeganie nowych zadań odnoszących się nie tylko do działalności podstawowej lecz również do uwarunkowań logistycznych funkcjonowania sieci. W referacie zostaną przedstawione wybrane zadania controllingu logistycznego w sieciach przedsiębiorstw.
EN
It is commonly considered that the development of small and medium enterprises in Poland is limited first of all due to capital barriers. While not challenging this opinion, one should, however, pay attention to another barrier such as the maintenance of a tendency towards retaining full independence and autonomy by companies from those groups. Inclusion in the group constituting the network is an option of a new activity form. The formation of a network and its functioning requires that its participants develop rules for co-operation and mutually respect their independence. Observation of enterprises operating in a network clearly suggests that maintaining functioning correct cannot be limited to standard tasks of controlling. It becomes necessary to perceive new tasks related not only to basic operations but also to logistic circumstances of network functioning. Selected tasks of the logistic controlling in enterprise networks will be discussed in the paper.
EN
The article presents innovative methods for designing and controlling topology in mesh networks. The authors of the paper simulate the procedure of deploying a mesh structure and prove that the shortest path for such a network is also one with the least number of hops in the sense of intermediate nodes.
EN
The article identifies and clarifies the normative, substantive and procedural foundations of the innovative school networks (ISN) of Ukraine. To achieve this goal, a set of interrelated methods has been used: general scientific: analysis, synthesis, abstraction, comparison and generalization, which have enabled to study official documents of educational reforms; specifically scientific: structural-logical analysis has made it possible to determine the normative principles of the phenomenon; system-structural and system-functional analysis have become the basis for revealing of the content and procedural principles of activity of innovative school networks of Ukraine. The main provisions of the activities of innovative school networks are defined: the need to diversify the education system through the creation of a network of innovative schools; development of an appropriate legislative framework for regulating the activities of joint educational institutions; government stimulation of change, the opening of new schools and the establishment of partnership relations between schools. The substantial foundations are clarified: the readiness of the school to provide quality education to all students and to cooperate in the dissemination of progressive pedagogical and managerial experience; professional development of teachers and school administration; implementation of active measures to enhance cooperation with students’ parents, local educational administration, the public; the introduction of an integrative-activity approach to the teaching of the disciplines of the natural-mathematical cycle. The organizational forms of the activity of the ISN of Ukraine are characterized: 1) the teacher’s mutual attendance of training sessions and a joint analysis of their results; 2) scientific-methodical and practical conferences; 3) dissemination and popularization of the acquired knowledge and information through printed materials, video, the Internet; 4) conducting comprehensive monitoring of the effective implementation of innovative pedagogical technologies in the work of general educational institutions. The study does not exhaust all aspects of the above problem. The content and procedural principles of the activity of innovative school networks of Ukraine, in particular, «Step by Step», «Environment» and «Azimuth» projects deserve further study.
8
Content available remote Using Network Metrics in Soccer: A Macro-Analysis
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EN
The aim of this study was to propose a set of network methods to measure the specific properties of a team. These metrics were organised at macro-analysis levels. The interactions between teammates were collected and then processed following the analysis levels herein announced. Overall, 577 offensive plays were analysed from five matches. The network density showed an ambiguous relationship among the team, mainly during the 2nd half. The mean values of density for all matches were 0.48 in the 1st half, 0.32 in the 2nd half and 0.34 for the whole match. The heterogeneity coefficient for the overall matches rounded to 0.47 and it was also observed that this increased in all matches in the 2nd half. The centralisation values showed that there was no ‘star topology’. The results suggest that each node (i.e., each player) had nearly the same connectivity, mainly in the 1st half. Nevertheless, the values increased in the 2nd half, showing a decreasing participation of all players at the same level. Briefly, these metrics showed that it is possible to identify how players connect with each other and the kind and strength of the connections between them. In summary, it may be concluded that network metrics can be a powerful tool to help coaches understand team’s specific properties and support decision-making to improve the sports training process based on match analysis.
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Content available remote CASE LCA Network
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EN
An analysis, done by the LCA Group from Faculty of Technical Sciences, University in Novi Sad, concerning the current situation in the field of LCA implementation in research and education in Central and Southeastern European countries reveald the absence of cooperation of scientific and research institution and LCA centres within the countries of Central and Southeastern Europe and the lack of communication between the above mentioned institutions and LCA centres in the countries of that region. To meet the challenges resulted from the diagnosis, the above-mentioned group suggested the creation of an international network. The paper is focused on showing the origin and development of the CASE LCA Network. The main participants of this Network are presented as well as the program of the commencement meeting organized in Novi Sad on September 2011. Different activities to be performed in future in the form of a work plan are also reviewied.
EN
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this paper is to evaluate countries’ position in the international trade network with regard to their two dimensions: their self-sufficiency and extent of their trade contacts. The second objective is to test the implications of the utilized criteria for the European Union member states. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND METHODS: It was decided to classify countries using the data on foreign value added in trade and network characteristics (mainly – vertex centrality). Different categories of countries were identified and labelled according to that criteria. Later, correlation analysis was used to determine if the utilised criteria had any effect on countries’ welfare and shock resistance. THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION: In our opinion, countries that play an important role in international trade network should be important partners for numerous other countries. However, that criterion is not enough, as many less developed countries serve simply as assembly lines for value created elsewhere. Therefore we focused also on the share of imported value added to the total value of exported goods. We then tested if our notions translate to national welfare and export’s resistance to external shocks, such as the Great Trade Collapse of 2008/2009. RESEARCH RESULTS: The classification concept was applied to a sample of EU member states displaying differences between Old and New member states. The analysis proved differences in welfare and stability of export performance during the Great Trade Collapse among countries with different levels of export and import contacts and intensity of relying on imported inputs for their own export production. CONCLUSIONS, INNOVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: It is vital to diversify export and import contacts due to possible impact of those characteristics on welfare level and stability of trade flows. At the same time, the effects of engagement in international production networks creates a tradeoff: higher dependence on foreign inputs may stabilize trade dynamics at the expense of lowering GDP level.
11
Content available remote Fast method for IEEE 802.16-2004 standard-based networks coverage measuring
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EN
This paper presents the time and cost efficient method for measuring effective coverage of IEEE 802.16-2004 standard-based networks. This is done by performing a series of continuous measurements on the grid basis. Due to this kind of signal quality surveying, estimation of the probable coverage area can be made. It is significant that the method is fast and is uses a standard customer equipment which makes it more accessible for non-specialized users. Besides theoretical definition and solution of coverage measuring problem, this paper shows also practical verification and an example implementation of the discussed method.
EN
The article looks at the relation of the clustering coefficient and degree in the network of interlocking directorates. The study covered 479 enterprises which degree is over 1 out of 902 companies listed on the main market at the Warsaw Stock Exchange and on the NewConnect at the end of 2014. The relation of the clustering coefficient and degree was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a comparison of two network clustering coefficients, (1) in the sense of Watts-Strogatz (CCWS) and in the sense of transitivity (C). The analysis led to the conclusion that a company with a high clustering coefficient has low degree in the board network on the Polish capital market.
EN
This paper briefly presents the generator of a network traffic. It is able to simulate different types of transmissions, and to measure their parameters. It can be used for checking existing network, ting different possibilities of its enlargement, or for verifying simulations done using other programs. The program architecture and behavior is described, along with conclusions, based on the implementation. The software consists of two parts: a network agent and a supervising program. This separation allows the measurement to be remotely managed via the TCP/IP. A short comparison to the existing commercial software of this kind is also presented.
PL
Artykuł skrótowo opisuje generator ruchu w sieci. Generator może symulować różne rodzaje transmisji oraz mierzyć ich parametry. Może być używany do badania istniejących sieci, testowania różnych możliwości ich rozbudowy lub też do weryfikowania symulacji dokonanych przy użyciu innych programów. Opisano strukturę programu i jego działanie. Program składa się z dwóch części: agenta sieciowego oraz programu-nadzorcy. Taki podział pozwala zdalnie zarządzać pomiarami poprzez połączenie TCP/IP. Zaprezentowano również krótkie porównanie z istniejącymi komercyjnymi narzędziami tego rodzaju.
EN
Slovak geodynamic reference network creates reference base for building of the National spatial network and for geodynamic determination of Slovakia by means of repeated GPS measurements. Network consists of 48 geodetic points monumented mostly into rocks or by bars beaten into ground. Results of GPS repeted measurements are elaborated by Bernese GPS and WIGS software. On the ground of repeated measurements are global and local velocities of the network points estimated in period from 1993 to 2000. Preliminary results show represent effective movement of Central Europe.
PL
W niniejszej publikacji przedstawiono rezultaty badań szybkości przesyłu danych w interfejsach USB 2.0 i FireWire 400 wykorzystywanych jako porty sieciowe, w odniesieniu do szybkości przesyłu danych w interfejsie Fast Ethernet. Badanie zostało przeprowadzone w celu ułatwienia wyboru standardu komunikacji w przypadku sieci komputerowej, składającej się z niewielkiej liczby węzłów.
EN
This publication presents the results of research on the rate of data transfer for USB 2.0 and FireWire 400 interfaces used as network ports in comparison with the speed of data transfer in the Fast Ethernet interface. The research was conducted in order to facilitate the selection of a standard for the communication network consisting of a small number of nodes.
PL
Celem artykułu jest ukazanie korzystnego wpływu polskiej sieci ekoturystycznej „Między Bugiem a Narwią” na pobudzanie zrównoważonego rozwoju obszarów wiejskich w Polsce. W pracy przedstawiono niektóre, wybrane działania na rzecz rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego, które autorzy zidentyfikowali, analizując działalność poszczególnych członków sieci zlokalizowanych w powiecie ostrowskim na Mazowszu. W artykule przedstawiono interesujące przedsięwzięcia, wpisujące się w koncepcję zrównoważonego rozwoju zarówno lidera sieci, jak i tych członków, którzy wydają się w mniejszym stopniu identyfikować z siecią, jednak są członkami sieci, więc działają w jej ramach. W pracy zaprezentowano inne instytucje, które – zainspirowane formami aktywności członków sieci – włączyły się w działania na rzecz zrównoważonego rozwoju badanego obszaru. Jednocześnie działania prorozwojowe członków sieci mogą wychodzić poza teren powiatu ostrowskiego, które też częściowo zidentyfikowano.
EN
The aim of the chapter is to demonstrate the impact of the ecotourism network „Between Bug and Narew” on the sustainable development of the Ostrów poviat in Mazovia. This influence was demonstrated by presenting the implemented activities for socio-economic development, which the author identified by analyzing the activities of network members. The chapter presents projectsthat fit into the concept of sustainable development of both the network leader and those who seem to be less identified with the network, but operate within its framework. The institution will also be presented, which, inspired by the forms of activity of the network members, joined the activities for the sustainable development of the poviat. At the same time, pro-development activities of network members may go beyond the poviat's area, as was also written about.
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Content available remote SUPPLY CHAINS IN CONTEXT OF KNOWLEDGE OF BUSINESS NETWORKS
80%
LogForum
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2012
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tom 8
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nr 1
3-10
EN
Background: Supply chains are a kind of business networks although both of these concepts are still defined in different ways in Poland. It seems that the paradigms of economics subdisciplines absorbed the knowledge of business networks in various ways and on various levels. In Poland, the networks are still treated as a novelty in many areas of management science. Methods: The paradigms of four subdisciplines (logistics, marketing, strategic management and international economic relations) were analyzed and compared. Results: The level of the integration between economic subdisciplines is low. There are significant differences among paradigms of subdisciplines, the concept of network is treated in different way in different subdisciplines, and therefore, the concept of strategy is in particular disciplines is treated differently. Conclusions: The formation of interdisciplinary research teams should be intensified as well as the methodological discussions on different levels (from the unification of concepts up to grouping and unification of paradigms) should be induced.
EN
The paper presents an approach to modelling operation process of critical infrastructure networks located within certain area. The approach has been conducted basing on networks located within the Baltic Sea area, being however also general concept of network of critical infrastructure networks operational process analysis. Operation process of particular critical infrastructure network has been defined, and then its characteristics described, by applying a semi-Markov processes modelling approach. Further, similar approach has been conducted to model operation process of network of critical infrastructure networks. On the base of models of operation processes of certain critical infrastructure network, and network of critical infrastructure networks, general approach to Global Baltic Network of Critical Infrastructure Networks modelling is presented as well.
EN
This paper briefly discusses the problem of efficiency of signature based network intrusion detection systems (NIDS). Author, using data gathered during experiments, is trying to create a set of principles that helps to deploy efficient NIDS. The results of some tests are presented, along with conclusions based on those results. The experiment consisted of two stages: testing efficiency of network IDS depending on total amount of signatures and estimating of ability to proper function in high speed network.
PL
Artykuł w skrócie prezentuje problem wydajności opartych na sygnaturach sieciowych systemów wykrywania włamań. Autor wykorzystując dane zdobyte podczas wykonywania eksperymentu próbuje stworzyć zbiór reguł, które pomogą wdrożyć wydajny sieciowy system wykrywania włamań. Wyniki kilku badań zostają przedstawione wraz z wnioskami. Eksperyment składał się z dwóch etapów: badania wydajności sieciowego systemu wykrywania włamań w zależności od całkowitej ilości sygnatur oraz określenia zdolności poprawnej pracy w sieci o dużej przepustowości.
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EN
We present the analysis of the development of information and telecommunication networks of new generation. The generalized structure of the intelligent security management system is shown in the paper. Also, the structure of neural network of ITS’s security assessment is shown, the principle of its operation is described.
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