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The paper is a presentation of part of research on evaluative connotations of onymic idioms in a contrastive perspective. In the present paper the evaluative connotations of English and Italian evaluative anthroponymic idioms are discussed with a special focus on their cross-linguistic equivalence. The research material consists of two corpora of English and Italian units excerpted from mono- and bilingual lexicographic works. The mechanisms of evaluation exploited in English and Italian phraseological units are discussed. The typology of equivalents, covering various types, such as full equivalents, partial equivalents, equivalents with re-created anthroponyms, non-phraseological equivalents, pseudo-equivalents, is presented and exemplified.
The author of the article advances basic principles of the study of such proper names as surnames. A special emphasis is placed on the anthroponym 'Tsiluiko'.
Content available remote To History of One Surname: 'Eismont' and 'Esymontovs'ky'
Baltic antroponymy is widely spread on the territory which was the part of the Grand Lithuanian Duchy, especially in its Ukrainian part. In the memorial edition of the 'Ukraine's Book of Memory' which sets the lists of Ukrainian soldiers that were killed in 1941-1945, there are regions (Zhytomyrs'ka- and Khmelnits'ka Oblast') with high occurence of Lithuanian surname 'Eismont'. Such zoning of the surname is interpreted as a result of migratory movement of impoverished Polish gentry in the 14th-16th centuries after Ukraine has become a part of Polish Commonwealth. Since 17th century, along with 'Eismont', the documents set the family of Esymontows'ky, Cossack gentry of Chernihiv. The duality of the Baltic name, functioning on the East-Slavonic basis, illustrates the opposition of presence/absence of the connective vowel -i- in disyllabic Lithuanian antroponyms (Eis-mont/ Es-i-montows'ky). The realization of this model is traced in Lithuanian-Byelorussian boundary. It is confirmed by M. Fasmer and 'Slownik geograficzny królestwa Polskiego': village Ejsymonty Wielikie/ Ejsmonty Wielikie (Bogorodyts'ka Volost' Grodnens'ky Povit), village Ejsymonty Malye/ Ejsmonty Malye (Maloberestovyts'ka Volost' Grodnens'ky Povit), village Ejsymonty / Ejsymonty Nadtobolskie (Vertslyashkivs'ka Volost' Grodnens'ky Povit).The given proper nouns are the evidence of the process of loss of the connective vowel -i- and subsequently, its disappearing. Furthermore, in word-formative context, the spatial modification of derivative structure of the proper name is traced. The family of Ejsymontows'ky had founded a village Symontowka. In the course of time, it has consequently come into the line of Ukrainian derivational suffix antroponymical oykomyms: Domontowka, Korbutowka, Montwidowka, Gedrimowka. Consequently, a peculiar 'corridor' of the proper name's spreading appeared. Furthermore, the way of 'coming' of the Baltic lexeme to Ukrainian language space is traced (probably, in the process of moving away from the Lithuanian boundary and the forms of Pluralia tantum. As a result, the origin decoding of Symontowka (and other antroponymical oykonyms) becomes easier (or more difficult?) because of the village proprietors - the family of Esymontowsky. .
More and more often in contemporary linguistics there is talk of secondary uses of proper names, which we observe in sentences of the type “I bought two Kossaks” (paintings done by Kossak). An important question is establishing whether units of this type are still proper names. The change in function of a proper name from onymic to metonymic is accompanied by changes in inflectional basis which may influence the establishment of grammatical gender. The goal of this article is an attempt to answer the question of the character of changes that occur in anthroponyms used secondarily in metonymic function. Superficial analysis leads to the conclusion that the value of the gender category undergoes change. Inasmuch as such an interpretation would bring with it consequences too far-reaching, it is assumed in this work that the changes have an operatory character. A similar consideration is proposed in interpretation of nouns for masculine persons of the type alkoholik [alcoholic], wzrokowiec [visualizer], and in the combinations psy alkoholiki [alcoholic dogs], psy wzrokowce [visualizer dogs].
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