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Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2019
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tom 74
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nr 3
181 – 193
EN
The article is primarily focused on the description, explanation and justification of the discernment and mutual intersections between intellectual and ethical virtues in the ethical theories of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas. It also takes a look on the possibility of the defence of their concepts in today´s philosophic discourse, which has become influenced by the comeback of virtue ethics, which has occurred in the last decades of the twentieth century. We ask the question whether the look back on the history of virtue ethics can shed some new light in the search for the solutions for our contemporary epistemological and ethical problems.
EN
The aim of this article is to examine the core of Abelard s intentionalist ethics, his understanding of intention, and some of the problems present in his conception. It also aims to demonstrate a more comprehensive understanding of the issue of intentions developed by Thomas Aquinas and compare it to Abelard's teaching. The study explores these topics from the perspective of history of philosophy and points out similarities and differences in the approaches of both of the philosophers. Abelard’s conception was further elaborated by Thomas Aquinas, however, the problem of intention and its place in the evaluation of human actions has not been completely solved.
EN
The paper examines the influence of aristotelianism on the explanation of action by Thomas Aquinas and Raymund Lullus. The main focus is on the basic elements of this influence, on the originality of the thought of Thomas Aquinas and Raymund Lullus, on their different interpretations of action in comparison with aristotelianism, and on reasons leading to different ways of accepting aristotelianism.
EN
Systematic exposition of the concept of number cannot be found in Aquinas' works. Nevertheless, there are many places where the problem is touched. The problem is encountered on the one hand within the discussion of the category of quantity and on the other hand when Aquinas speaks about transcendental concepts and deals with the problem of numerical statements concerning God. The aim of the paper is to reconstruct, on the basis of Aquinas more or less fragmentary ideas, his concept of number.
EN
Saint Albert the Great and Saint Thomas Aquinas, two excellent scholars of the Dominican Order in the 13th century, reflected on the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ using the analogy between human body and the body of the Church. They believed in the necessity of being a member of the body of the Church in order to achieve eternal salvation. Although they reaffirmed visible and institutional aspects, their idea of the Church extended beyond the limits of a visible body which could be precisely noted and defined within the time-space boundary. They emphasized the role of the Holy Spirit as the life source of the body of the Church, and communion with Christ in faith and charity as the condition of being a member of the body in full sense. Both recognized the possibility of belonging to the visible Church and at the same time of being excluded from the Mystical Body of the Church. Using the categories of the actual and potential membership in the Summa Theologiae III, q. 8, Aquinas gave the Church as the Mystical Body of Christ elasticity in a particular way.
EN
The paper deals with a type of whole and a part that can be found in Aquinas' work and to which no attention has been paid so far. This type of whole and a part can be called metaphysical whole and metaphysical part, respectively. In the paper, metaphysical whole and a part are put forth on the problem of the logical and metaphysical structure of a common nature.
EN
The paper is focused on the question whether a human person should be treated as a rational animal or an embodied spirit. The first definition of a human being goes back to Aristotle. In his conception human being is the highest animal, i.e. he is on the top of the hierarchy of material beings. The second definition shows human being on the lowest position in the realm of spirits. Here human being is the lowest and the least perfect among spiritual beings, the only spirit who is submerged into material world. The paper presents and discusses the ideas of W. Norris Clarke, who was influenced by James Etzwiller.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2018
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tom 73
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nr 4
294 – 304
EN
Does it make any sense today to look for the intersections between rationality and morals? Were the ancient and medieval philosophies, in which these intersections were present, wrong? And what led to the resolute divorce between these two phenomena? What is the justification for the latter? And is it reasonable? The aim of the author´s article is to provide answers to these questions, which would be based on a systematic study of the relationship between these two phenomena. Thus he goes back to the tradition of thought beginning with Socrates and reaching its peak in the philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas. This tradition was reintroduced into the modern philosophic discourse by Alasdair MacIntyre.
EN
The paper deals with Aquinas’ theory of intentional forms, so-called species, insofar as it gives an account of the validity of human cognitive acts. Its focus is on the objectivity of knowledge and the basis of radical (Cartesian) scepticism, therefore the comparisons to the modern theory of ideas are employed. However, the author’s aim is not a defence against scepticism; her aim is rather to provide certain insights into its origins.
EN
The paper deals with the understanding of human nature in the philosophy of T. Aquinas and D. Hume. Its aim is to highlight some of the naturalistic tendencies in the writings of both authors. Naturalism is conceived as a position which in the explanation of human nature underlines the role of natural dispositions, inclinations and capacities operating in human mind, which are out of the control of reason. Aquinas and Hume are presented as philosophers of human nature. This view is supported by their understanding of the role of natural propensities of human beings as well as the relationship between reason and emotions (passions) and also their respective explanations of moral actions.
EN
The paper offers a comparison of two different approaches in Medieval thought to a theoretical science, both drawing from Aristotle. It also discusses the influence these approaches exercised on the understanding of the scientific status of theology. It outlines Thomas Aquinas's conception of the theology as a science, followed by its critique by John Duns Scotus. In its first part the paper offers a detailed description of the core of the medieval conceptions, as well as of the Aristotelian conception of science, its logical-methodological as well as its psychological aspects, showing, that the medieval authors mentioned did not share neither of them. In conclusion the paper outlines the roots, transformations and some of the historical aspects of the relationship between philosophy and theology, which became also the subject matter of the discussions about the scientific status of theology.
EN
The study offers Congar’s understanding of the topic of baptismal priesthood. The theologian draws much on biblical sources, touching also the era of systematization of theology in which the highest authorities are Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. These writers, as Congar argues, introduce many distinctions into theological reflection which helps them to form a coherent and balanced system in theological work. For the French Dominican the return to the sources helps him to avoid the unilateral approach of modern theology which often tries to accent that shape of reflection which is the strongest or which seems to be the most useful for solving some particular problem.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2018
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tom 73
|
nr 4
282 – 293
EN
The paper deals with the relationship between reason/philosophy and faith/religion with some medieval authors (Averroes, Boethius of Dacia and Thomas Aquinas). Its first objective is to emphasize the key approaches such as the subordination of philosophy to religion or vice versa, which is based on the difference between the “absolute and relative” aspects. Its second objective is to identify the parallels and differences between the medieval and current strategies of addressing this issue (forms of conflict, independence, dialogue and integration). The author's opinion is that the relationship between reason/philosophy and faith/religion is primary methodological. The conflict between reason/philosophy and faith/religion is the result of a broad generalization of one of the two terms. The best form of the coexistence of science and religion is their mutual independence in those cases where we do not feel competent in any other than our own scientific discipline, or some form of a dialogue/integration (if we do have the necessary expertise).
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