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2004
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tom 39
87-122
EN
Thirty years after publishing Petru Roman's article in Acta Archaeologica Carpathica about the beginnings of the 'early Bronze age' in the area of contemporary Romania, a survey of new facts was carried out. The significance of Danubian regions, such as Muntenia, Oltenia, Banat, and Dobrogea, where many new complexes have been discovered, has been emphasised. New materials are also known from Moldova. The recapitulation presents conclusions on the formation of the early Bronze Age civilisation in the area of the lower Danube and the role of local factors in this process.
EN
Relevant palaeodemographic data (synoptic data on age, or sex and life expectancy) from the multicultural archaeological site in Jelsovce (south-western Slovakia), where 616 graves of the Early Bronze Age were excavated. The graves included the skeletal remains of 660 individuals in total. Among them, 213 individuals were of the Nitra culture, 126 individuals of the Unetice culture and 321 individuals of the Madarovce culture. The burial site was actively continuously used in the Early Bronze Age and is dated approximately to the period between 2200 up to 1500 BC. The presented results of the palaeodemographic analysis are summed up in three tables and six diagrams. Despite the remarkable differences in numbers of the buried individuals, the population average age (31-32 years) seems to be stable during the almost seven centuries of burying at the site. In all three groups the average age of men was higher than that of women. If assuming the stationary population, numbers of burying groups could represent almost 24-25 inhabitants of the Nitra culture, 22 inhabitants of the Unetice culture and 55 inhabitants of the Madarovce culture.
EN
Geographic area of the northern inner west-Carpathian foothills, that is almost identical with the territory of present-day Slovakia, was a part of the south-western border line of cultures of the corded complex at the turn of the older and younger periods of prehistory. In spite of the fact that in this area no distinct settlement structure belonging to any of the cultures of this group has been found up to now, the corded ornament has its phenomenal position here. The study, which is including also a palaeotechnological reconstruction, is investigating the corded ornament and its semantic, cognitive and philosophical aspects by the method of structured research. In addition to information about the creator himself, the ornament can bear also information about his community and contact communities as well. In the local west-Carpathian society, where the ornament was an element of different culture, the symbolic sign (wounded cords) could repeatedly demonstrate the creator's exclusivity within the sociogroup, i. e. affiliation (a foreign but established member) with another - originally 'corded' community. In different category - as an index sign - the ornament could represent also a relation to a specific family line or also information of different kind (measure, exchange, commodity parameters of the object - representative, or associations). The structured approach leads to presentation of two basic ornament forms - the aesthetic (artistic-utility-decorative) form and the informative (communication- purpose) form. Subjective platform of the ornament, however, in the both cases was created by a system of deep abstract thought - the corded civilization episteme. The notion is expressing a distinctive cultural code, general perception of world, a conception, arrangement, order and also spontaneous structure of thinking of prehistoric society. It represented a sum of values and principles of remarkably strong inner energy, which probably unconsciously kept a trend of group thinking. We interpret it as the corded civilization episteme, which in the given area and time represented itself by a special, inside converging and outside delimiting way of leading. In autochthonous communities of the west-Carpathian territory the corded civilization episteme survived for almost thousand years. In spite of the fact that it did not occur as a whole-society domain, but rather as a distant civilization episteme, the most probably it kept leading for the whole period of its existence. This concealed, unconscious and peculiar structure of thought, which was remarkable by its exclusivity, specific perception of world and in the long term symbolized by the corded ornament, survived in a turbulent heterocultural environment of the borderline of north-eastern and southern cultural complexes during the whole period of upper metallicum from the Late Aeneolithic up to the entering Tumulus cultures.
EN
The article concerns the problem of the appearance of the oldest aerophonic instruments in Central Europe in form of the bone pipes. The people of the Mierzanowice culture knew them in the Early Bronze Age. This fact is confirmed by the remains in the graves from Malopolska and Sandomierz Uplands. Pan flutes were known however already in Eneolithic Age in the Corded Ware culture.
EN
On October 2002 a small burial ground of the Nitra culture was explored east of Slatinice (distr. of Olomouc). A dense concentration of the graves on a rather small place in the context with excavated area leads us to the result that we explored the entire burial site. The shortest distance to the river Morava's right bank is 11 km. The graves were situated along the oval perimeter with an empty centre, the longer axis of which was SW-NE oriented and 22.5 m long; the shorter axis was NW-SE oriented and 15 m long. Fourteen graves were of oblong ground plan, in six graves the pit shape can be classified as a deformed rectangle, other two were trapeze. All of them have more or less rounded corners. The sidewalls of four graves were stepped. As far as their size is concerned, the grave pits rather varied. Apart from the children graves, the size of which corresponded with the deceased's age, the limits ranged between 215 x 135 cm and 130 x 85 cm. In the both men were buried. Comparing the size of these grave pits with those in which the women were buried, we found no substantial difference between male and female burials. The burial ground is characterised by a strict bipolarity in burying the deads. The men were lying on their right side, with the head to the SW, and the women on their left side, with the head to the NE. Equipment of the graves under study was relatively poor, consisting of pottery, copper jewellery, cylindrical bone or antler beads, flat nacre beads (total number of approx. 1000 pieces), the beads made of green-blue glass material - faience, bone awls and silicite blades and arrow points. Remains of meaty food, found at bottoms of vessels or in their vicinity can be classified as a charity. Only in one case the animal ribs were lying free behind the dead's back. Pottery was found in 9 graves (41%) and only 4 burials were without any equipment. The spectral analysis of the metal ornaments showed they were made of copper of the Slovak provenience; the analysis of the faience proved their Egyptian origin. Apart from the graves also industrial objects were explored on the area, 5 of them were of La Téne origin, 11 from the Roman period and 6 objects cannot be dated, lacking any finds.
EN
Archaeological research of a burial ground at Mytna Nova Ves, the local quarter of Ludanice, in south-western Slovakia was realized within the years 1982, 1984-1989 and 2003. The excavated 600 graves have enriched remarkably the collection of finds dated to the Nitra and Unetice cultures in Slovakia mainly concerning the group of metal artefacts, in which copper or bronze daggers that are the topic of this article are dominating. On the excavated burial ground 14 daggers were found there in 13 graves. As the cultural chronology is concerned, 8 daggers belong to the Nitra culture and 6 to the Unetice culture, which were divided into three basic types (A-C) according to shapes of but and blade and their chronology (A - the oldest type, C - the youngest type). Special attention was paid to their position in graves. As the daggers occurred in male burials exclusively, age categories of the deceased men were observed. The difference in dagger positioning within the male graves of the Nitra culture and the Unetice culture was evident. Coming out from the assumption that daggers in the graves were placed in the way the deceased had wore them in life, daggers situated on a belt on the right side predominated in the Nitra culture and pointed up on the back in the Unetice culture. This different way of dagger wearing can indicate costume variances of the cultures under study and dissimilarities in infighting methods as well. Situating of graves with daggers within the burial ground area showed their noticeable concentration in its western or south-western section. More graves with daggers had free space around that make us think about possible existence of smaller mounds. Members of higher social post, hunters and fighters are presupposed to be buried in the burials with daggers.
EN
The article presents the problem of occurrence of pottery of foreign provenience at the turn of the Early and Middle Bronze Ages in Slovakia from the point of view of a complex process that led to formation of a new quality - the so-called Tumulus cultures and oldest Urnfield cultures (the Suciu de Sus and Piliny cultures). This transformation process was reflected in lively trade and cultural contacts of the north Carpathian region with cultures of almost the whole Carpathian basin and probably also in movements or shifts of smaller ethnic groups from the south northward and from the east westward, what is evidenced by presence of foreign cultural elements or imports in collections of finds belonging to particular cultures. They are mostly finds of pottery from the north Balkan region of the Vatin-Vrsac-Girla Mare-Cirna cultural circle and from the area of Otomani culture spread at the north-eastern part of the Carpathian basin. Older finds of this kind were recently enriched with pottery of foreign provenience from further sites. Pottery from the both newly excavated sites reflects distinguishable heritage of the Otomani and Vatya cultures. Origin of decoration motifs of the so-called 'Litzen' decoration have to be sought in the north Balkan milieu of the Belegis I or Cruceni- Belegis cultures. As far as their chronology and cultural environment are concerned, these finds are connected with those from the necropolis in Dolny Peter from the sites in Muzla-Cenkov and Sutto and from the necropolis in Menfocsanak and they approximately coincide with younger phase of the Kosziderian horizon bronze hoards. The work also presents a problem in terminology, which is connected with appellation of the time horizon with occurrence of these finds in the south-western Slovak region by various researchers, such as the Old Tumulus stage of the Carpathian Tumulus culture; the Dolny Peter phase of the Madarovce culture; late or post-classic stage of the Madarovce culture. At the same time the time interval is proposed to be named the Madarovce culture - Tumulus culture horizon also in connection with its provable continuity of the local development in following stages of the Middle Bronze Age. Hence, this would be a time period that can be synchronized with the horizon of finds of the Rakospalota group of the Vatya culture, the Streda nad Bodrogom group of the Fuzesabony culture or with the transitional Otomani culture - Piliny culture horizon.
EN
The study presents proofs of metallurgical production at fortified settlements of the Early Bronze Age cultures on the territory of Slovakia in the northern part of the Carpathian basin in the chronological succession they appeared. Since the beginning of the 1950s close attention has been paid to the research of fortified settlements in Slovakia. Owing to this Slovakia and Slovak archaeology made an important step in raising awareness of the European scientific public. Relevant precondition for metallurgy development were deposits of non-ferrous metals (copper, gold and tin), which are situated first of all in regions of central and eastern Slovakia. From the point of view of metallurgical development in fortified settlements, the area where the western Unetice culture meets the eastern Hatvan culture, appears to be of extraordinary importance. In the final period of the Early Bronze Age the number of fortified settlements in the northern part of the Carpathian Basin increased and the development of metallurgical production culminated. While metallurgy in the period of the Hatvani culture was concentrated at areas of fortified settlements prevailingly, in the following period, that of the Madarovce culture, we can find proofs of metallurgical activities also out of fortified areas, at open space (Nitra, Bahon). This makes the region of the Madarovce culture close to that of the Veterov culture. Even more distinctively than in the Madarovce culture in south-western Slovakia, metallurgy of non-ferrous metals is documented in the Otomani culture in eastern Slovakia. This observation does not point out the fact that metallurgical production in the Madarovce culture was on noticeably lower level than in the Otomani culture. More probably it refers to different extinction of majority of fortified settlements in the Madarovce and in the Otomani cultures. While small number of hoards and almost total absence of bronze and golden artefacts in settlements of the Madarovce culture may refer to their gradual extinction, occurrence of numerous hoards of these artefacts in the Otomani culture, frequently hidden under a hut/dwelling floor, indicate their abrupt, probably catastrophic end.
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