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PL
Gminy prowadzą gospodarkę finansową na podstawie budżetu. Jedną z zasad obowiązujących te jednostki przy jego opracowywaniu jest zasada równowagi budżetowej. Ustawa o finansach publicznych z 2009 r. wprowadziła regulacje w zakresie równoważenia budżetu jednostek samorządu terytorialnego, które polegały na konieczności równoważenia budżetu tych jednostek w części bieżącej. Nastąpiło przeformułowanie gospodarki finansowej tych jednostek na generowanie większej nadwyżki operacyjnej w celu prowadzenia przez nie działalności inwestycyjnej. Celem artykułu jest zbadanie, czy istniejący obowiązek równoważenia budżetu bieżącego może w znaczący sposób wpływać na kierunki rozdysponowania środków publicznych przez gminy, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wydatków bieżących, oraz ograniczyć poziom realizacji zadań przez te jednostki. Badaniem objęto gminy i miasta na prawach powiatu województwa wielkopolskiego i lubelskiego.
PL
Wybór formy organizacyjno-prawnej dotychczasowej działalności gospodarczej, prowadzonej w gminach w nowych warunkach ustrojowych i gospodarczych, nastręcza w praktyce wiele problemów. Z uwagi na fakt, iż ustawa samorządowa nie precyzuje kryteriów wyboru gmina ma swobodę wybory zarówno formy publicznej, jak i cywilnej. Dowolność formalna w tym zakresie nie oznacza faktycznych możliwości, bowiem forma działalności gospodarczej gminy jest determinowana konkretnymi warunkami. Aby ustalić optymalną formę organizacyjno-prawną działalności gospodarczej gmin, zaproponowane zostały kryteria, którymi należałoby się kierować: 1) cel działalności społeczno-ekonomicznej; 2) ochrona interesów odbiorców; 3) ochrona interesów jednostki gospodarczej.
EN
The legal provisions introducing the institution of legal government in Poland failed fully to solve the problems of the legal organization of communal economic activity. The article deals with such problems. Discussed are the reasons and legal grounds of the communes choice of the form of legal organization of their economic activity (which is based mainly on the former local enterprises, transformed into communal enterprises by force of law), as well as the criteria for that choice. The problem is that commune councils are obliged to choose the form of legal organization of communal economic activity. Yet the legislators failed to specify the relevant criteria, thus offering the communes a seeming freedom of choice. At the same time, however, the possibility of preserving the form of communal enterprise has been excluded. This makes the choice difficult, especially for the communes that lack the staff competent to perform the task in the conditions of market economy in the making. It is the author's intention to help the communes with the suggestion that they should base on the following three criteria when making their choice: 1) the socioeconomic features and aims of their economic activity; 2) interests of the subjects who are to benefit by the activity and who are engaged in it; 3) the properties of the forms of legal organization offered by Polish legal provisions (e.g. commercial and noncommercial partenrship, extrabudgetary economy).
PL
Strategia rozwoju miasta i gminy Lidzbark Wielki spełnia następujące cele: służy administracji jako zwarta informacja o stanie zagospodarowania z jego słabymi i mocnymi elementami, daje propozycje działań strategicznych zmierzających do przyspieszenia tempa rozwoju miasta i gminy. Strategia dzięki wykonanym odniesieniom przestrzennym staje się materiałem wejściowym jako założenie programowe do studium uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego miasta i gminy.
EN
On the commission of the Town Office in Lidzbark Welski the group of research workers from the Institute worked out "The strategy of development and the study of pre-conditions and directions for the physical management of the city and the community" in 1998. In the frames of strategy the employer wished the preparation of the report on the state of spatial development of the city and the community (as diagnoses) and the strategy in the proceedings of self-governmental administration for the more intensive development of city and community. Prepared materials also serve as the integrant element and analytical for the usage in the study. Therefore the problems of obligatory own tasks and entrusted to the self-government as well as activities in the economical sphere, going beyond the statutory duties of the Council and the Board and resumed as responsibility for and solidarity with the inhabitants of community, were the subject of diagnosis and strategy. In the contents of the report the following descriptions and analyses were included: -location of town and commune on the background of the up to date economical realities in the country and in the region; -characteristics of economical base including: agriculture, forestry, tourism, industry and services; -economical infrastructure (business environment); -internal pre-conditions as technical and social infrastructure; -works of self-government; -finances of town and community; -historical experience of Lidzbark neighbourhood; -aspirations of inhabitants and administration workers. As the result of the works on the report "the photography" of physical state of art was made, and the analysis of airborne photographs among other things was used in fact. The conclusions were also worked out which referred to the future vision of town and community development were divided into the two groups: the group of weak features of physical development and the group of strong features of physical development. During the preparation of development strategy the inhabitants of the town and community as well as the commission elected by the Mayor, consisting of the local leaders and the workers of Town Office, actively took part. The result of the joint works of the experts' group from the Institute and the above mentioned Commission and the social consultations was the formulation of development of visions of town and community area and designation ten acute problems, which brake the economic development of the area. Among other things to these problems were enclosed: drastical diminution in agricultural incomes, structural unemployment bounded with changes into private property of PGR (National Agricultural Farms) and local industry, low standard of hitherto existing investment of tourism services, lack of telecommunication, slowly process of decisionmaking in investments caused by the inefficient spatial planning system. The variety of initiatives submitted during the commission proceedings and in questionnaires were parallely analysed, and their intention was to put to levelling the problems and economic animation. The characteristic virtue of potential activities was the physical development and the utilization of own community resources and the increase in the offer of products for sale. The confrontation of the development vision of the town and the community with the today realities and socio-economic problems and her numerous assets allowed for the formulation of strategical aims, with general aim in it, what are economical attractiveness and competitiveness of the town and the community in the region and subordination to him some pre-conditioning aims, strictly bounded with the particular spheres of town and community economy. The manner of realization for the assumed goals found finally its shape in the programmes and tasks directing the labour of administration and inhabitants in the town and in the community. The programmes were focused on the initiative in the economical sphere (on the development of tourism function included in it), in the social sphere (on the adoption and the development of post-primary school to the needs of the labour market and the requirements of modern times) and in the sphere of technical infrastructure (upgrading the standard of life and saving the natural environment before degradation). The diagnosis of the physical state and the strategy are also referred to the finances of the town and the community. It designates the amount of capital means the self-govern- ment has got at disposal on the stage of implementation of the strategy and the programmes to recommend. The quoted documentation parallely served to elaborate the study of pre-conditions and directions for the spatial management of city and community which gained the positive mark of the evaluation bodies and which was voted by the Town Council.
EN
The main goal of this article is to present business promotional activities conducted by the local government of Tarnobrzeg town for stimulating internal and external investors to initiate and develop business undertakings in the municipality. The situation in Tarnobrzeg is far from satisfactory because there is no enough diversity and frequency in applying the promotional instruments. Furthermore, limited financial funds don’t allow this sort of activity to be sufficiently developed by the local government. A promotional strategy of the town is a chance here to enhance business promotional activities.
PL
Strategia rozwoju jako podstawowy dokument ukierunkowujący procesy rozwojowe każdej jednostki administracyjnej. Główne elementy strategii: diagnoza prospektywna zakończona identyfikacją problemów rozwoju, wizja przyszłości poprzedzona określeniem pola działania wyznaczonego scenariuszem szans i zagrożeń, cele rozwoju w ujęciu hierarchicznym, wskazującym na ich znaczenie dla rozwoju danej jednostki, oraz kierunki działania konkretyzowane w postaci polityk, programów i zadań przypisanych odpowiednim strukturom zarządzania.
EN
Strategy of development as the basic document directing development processes of each administrative unit. Main elements of strategy are: prospective diagnosis completed with the identification of development problems, the vision of future preceded with the definition of the field of interest which is marked with the scenario of chances and threats, aims of development in respect of hierarchy, showing for their importance for the development of the unit as well as directions of activity precised as: policies, programmes and purposes attributed to right structures of management.
PL
Problemy związane z przygotowaniem lokalnej polityki ekologicznej (ekorozwoju), zwanej również programem ekorozwoju, strategią ekorozwoju lub Agendą 21, analizowane są z punktu widzenia trzech zasadniczych czynników przesądzających o ostatecznym jej kształcie: woli, wiedzy i możliwości władz gminy oraz społeczności lokalnej.
EN
The Agenda 21 process on the local level may be evaluated according to three ultimate criteria of sustainable development: the willingness, expertise and capacity of the local government and local community. The willingness to embark on the road of sustainable development is a direct function of the level of environmental awareness of the Polish public. The level differs strongly from region to region and even between urban and rural populations, between the young and the elderly and between the well educated and undereducated. This provides a background for the implementation of local environmental policies. The expertise crucial for policy-making towards sustainability should provide answers to the two basic questions: (1) how to identify problems and set local (sustainable) development objectives; and (2) How to structure the development and implementation of policies. Observation of current practices indicates that these processes are undermined by 1) the dominance of sustainable development ideology over the research-sup- ported theory, 2) limited level of aggregated information on the community-economy-environment system on the local level, and 3) poor management standards and weak communications. The capacity must be considered under two headings: 1) conditions to implementing sustainable policies, and 2) policy measures and tools. The odds of implementing sustainable policies locally are determined mainly by the statutory division of powers between the central and regional administration and local governments. One general observation would be that the major policy implementation tools for communities wanting to become sustainable are land-use planning, zoning policies and management of infrastructure.
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