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Filozofia (Philosophy)
tom 67
nr 3
221 – 229
The paper offers a semantic analysis of anaphora using bound variables in two distinct logical systems – predicate calculus and dynamic predicate calculus. First, it offers a general explanation of anaphora. Further, basic relevant notions of both systems are discussed. Finally, the existing models of anaphora are analysed to show their deficiencies.
This paper deals with the problem of semantic analysis of contexts involving so-called anaphoric chain. The notion of anaphoric chain is explained by way of an example. Afterwards, a semantic analysis of sentences containing anaphora established in Transparent Intensional Logic (TIL) is examined. It is demonstrated that it is not adequate for texts including anaphoric chains. An alternative method using TIL that is capable to deal with all kinds of anaphora is proposed. Anyway, one may raise doubts as to whether both approaches are really analyses of anaphoric used expressions.
Content available remote Wspomnienie Matki Boskiej i świętych w Anaforach wschodnich
tom 13
nr 23-24
In his article the Author analyze the role of saints and the Mother of God in intercession for various anaphora. Then he poses the thesis that the evolution of this part of liturgies is passed as follows: in the oldest anaphora does not commemorations of saints, later we find the commemoration of the various classes of saints, and finally the commemoration of the Mother of God and the saints in ways difference.
The article provides a comprehensive analysis of pleonasm as stylistic and syntactic category. Pleonasm was defined as a phenomenon that is caused according to the rule of linguistic redundancy. A broad view of pleonasm has been proposed that unites not only the usage of synonyms or semantically close words, but also anaphora, diaphora, epiphora, polysyndeton. The types of grammatical pleonasms and facultative pleonasms have been classified. Polysyndeton has been defined as a variety of pleonasm that is the repetition of identical conjunctions, particles, and prepositions. The authoress came to the conclusion that the usage of the same words or word combinations is always bound with syntactic omission and complex sentence.
Content available remote Lexikální opakování v Máchově Máji
By ‘lexical repetition’ the author of this article means simple or multiple repetition of individual words or groups of words. The most frequent kind is the repetition of words in various positions in a line, in an identical or inflected form, as much as twenty lines away; the most frequent kind is repetition between five and ten lines away. The second kind is repetition in rhetorical figures, for example in the anaphora, the epiphora, the climax, and word play. The normal distance here is one to two lines, but the author examines greater distance (for example, seven to eight lines) and also instances of approximate repetition. An unusually large number of both occur in Mácha’s Máj (1836), particularly in anaphoras and epiphoras. The third kind is repetition at large and very large distances, within a part of Máj or between its parts, and, mainly, longer passages, for example the oxymora (metaphors) in Cantos II and IV. Apart from repetition, the passages also often contain variation, the shortening or expanding of the initial passage. The proportion of repeated words in the poem is such that one must consider them to be Mácha’s chief marked means and approach (almost half the total 4,280 lexical units are repeated words). From the large number of occurrences the author of the article selects representative examples of various repetitions. In both his commentary and overall conclusions he points out their formal and semantic references.
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