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PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę opracowania planu ochrony dla obszaru Kampinoskiego Parku Narodowego i jego otuliny. Jest to pierwsze tego typu opracowanie spośród wszystkich parków narodowych w Polsce. Zawiera szereg nowoczesnych rozwiązań z zakresu kształtowania ekologicznej struktury krajobrazu oraz czynnej ochrony ekosystemów i gatunków. Może stanowić ważny punkt odniesienia dla planów ochrony innych parków narodowych i krajobrazowych.
EN
The Kampinos National Park is one the largest and oldest facilities of its kind in Poland. It borders directly on Poland's capital and so it is subject to strong an- thropopressure. Further, it is located on the confluence of three major rivers and boasts an exceptional abundance of natural wealth. As such, the Park is a high profile environ-The Kampinos National Park is one the largest and oldest facilities of its kind in Poland. It borders directly on Poland's capital and so it is subject to strong an- thropopressure. Further, it is located on the confluence of three major rivers and boasts an exceptional abundance of natural wealth. As such, the Park is a high profile environ-mental asset. Considering all this, the Kampinos National Park has been selected for a pilot comprehensive plan of active and passive conservation of species, ecosystems and landscapes in Poland. The plan itself was preceded by a retrospective study of change in the ecosystems over the last 40 years. Following that, an assessment of the current status of the natural heritage, land management, current issues and conflicts was conducted. The third phase was to develop an overall strategy of nature conservation and working together with local governments. The strategy was then translated into 14 detailed regulations. Each regulation sets forth a 20-year action plan designed for a given type of ecosystem or a type of economic, cultural or educational activity (Fig. 1). The Kampinos National Park Conservation Plan contains a series of modern policies of achieving the best possible ecological structure of landscape, renaturalisation of ecosystems and restoration of species (Fig. 2). The project may be an important resource for conservation plans in other national parks and landscape parks in Poland and elsewhere.
PL
Gmina Wąwolnica leży na obszarze Kazimierskiego Parku Krajobrazowego uznawanego za jeden z najcenniejszych tej rangi obiektów w Polsce. Na tym terenie wymogi ochrony walorów przyrodniczych, krajobrazowych i kulturowych są nadrzędne w stosunku do wszystkich dziedzin działalności ludzkiej. Dlatego za kluczowy etap prac nad studium uwarunkowań i kierunków zagospodarowania przestrzennego gminy uznano opracowanie "Strategii ochrony przyrody i krajobrazu". Kolejne fazy pracy nad strategią obejmowały: 1) analizę krajowych i regionalnych uwarunkowań przyrodniczych, społecznych i gospodarczych, 2) analizę uwarunkowań lokalnych, w tym ocenę skali i tempa przekształceń środowiska w ciągu ostatnich 30 lat, ocenę aktualnych walorów przyrodniczych, kulturowych i gospodarczych, a także analizę problemów i konfliktów oraz ocenę potencjałów, 3) określenie strategicznych celów i głównych kierunków działań, 4) ustalenie krótkoterminowych i długoterminowych programów realizacyjnych, 5) ustalenie instrumentów realizacji strategii. Zadania 2, 3 i 4 opracowano dla systemu 138 podstawowych przyrodniczych jednostek przestrzennych. Koordynatorem realizacji "Strategii..." będzie Zarząd Gminy Wąwolnica w porozumieniu z dyrekcją Zespołu Lubelskich Parków Krajobrazowych.
EN
The Wąwolnica community is on location at The Kazimierski Landscape Park and its lagging (drawing la). This park is considered as the one of most precious in this range in Poland and that is why the particular rigours in nature and landscape protection are obligatory here. However, at the same time in Poland the intensive economic changes are taking place and they are usually bounded with the intensification of land-use and utilization of environmental resources. The Wąwolnica community fruitfully participated in these activities. However, for the processes of transformation were implemented in accordance with the rules of sustainable development, "The strategy on protection of nature and landscape" for the area of Wąwolnica community was worked out. This document is treated as a key-element of the new plan for spatial management of community. The successive phases of work on "The Strategy" included: 6) analysis of national and regional natural pre-conditions, social and economic; 7) analysis of local pre-conditions with the scale and the tempo evaluation included in the course of last 30 years, estimation of present natural, cultural and economic values as well as the analysis of problems and conflicts and potentialities evaluation; 8) definition of strategic objectives and main directions for activities; 9) precision of short-term and long-term programs of implementation; 10) set up of instruments of strategy realization. The tasks No. 2, 3 and 4 were referred to the area of whole community in general range, and in particular to the system of 138 natural territorial basic units (drawing lb) distinguished in accordance with Chmielewski and Solona method (1996). It was shown that in the course of last 30 years approx.42% of community surface has got the high dynamics of ecologic and landscape changes whilst 26% of examined area had the relatively high stability. The coming changes could be treated as possitive for nature and landscape on 3,1% of community surface, only. Apart of this it was revealed that approx.58% of all natural territorial basic units has got very high and high natural values (drawing 2) which are mainly focused on the valley of Bystra River and they accompany to her system of deep, powerfully branched ravines. To the high natural values accompany most frequently high recreation values (table 2) and health resort in one of regions but as far as 65% of basic units already feel the preassure of increase in intensity of natural resources usage. Basing on carried out analyses the outline of the 3 strategic programs was worked out: 1) protection, reinforcement and enlargement of areas of high ecologic stability (rebuilding of water retention, increase in forestry, strengthening the population of species dieing and being in danger); 2) protection of landscape and cultural identity in community and preservation of tourism and health resort medical care development (drawing 3); 3) ecological education of society. The legal, financial, social and organizational instruments of strategy realization were also defined.
EN
Intense changes in the land use of lake catchment basins in the Polesie Lubelskie region (E. Poland), observed over the last decades, have a strong, significant effect on the functioning of lakes and wetlands in the landscape. One of the methods of investigating these changes is analysis of the network of land use boundaries. The studies included 11 basins of lakes located in 3 neighboring river valleys. Basing on the analysis of air photographs from the years 1952 through 1992, 55 types of land use boundaries (transitional zones) had been identified in that region. The changes, which had taken place during this period, related to the features like: character of the transitional zones, density of their network and size of the patches were also examined. Most stable and most transformed areas were pointed out. Suggestions concerning directions and methods of environmental protection in that region were formulated.
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