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Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2022
|
tom 77
|
nr 9
694 – 710
EN
In the introductory part of the paper, we outline the position of the philosophy of physics in the context of naturalistic theoretical philosophy. The main message here is an appeal for understanding philosophy as an integral part of the scientific investigation of the world. In the following sections, we identify three central aspects of contemporary fundamental physics, knowledge of which is essential for philosophical reflection on physics. This is followed by an explanation of one of these aspects, which is the gauge principle. Based on classical electrodynamics, we explain with the help of a relatively modest mathematical apparatus the key idea of gauge symmetry, as it appears in the core theories of the standard model of elementary particles. In the final part, we point out the philosophical relevance of the gauge principle, especially within the current debates between substance- and structure-oriented philosophies of physics.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2016
|
tom 71
|
nr 9
746 – 758
EN
In mathematics we witness a certain tension between intuitive and non-intuitive elements or between intuitive and rigorous approach. Some philosophizing mathematicians remind us of the intuitive as a necessary background of all productive mathematical work, while others prefer to steer clear of anything „merely intuitive“ since they view it as something leading us to mistakes and paradoxes. The aim of this paper is to point out the variety of the intuitive in mathematical praxis and appeal for its more adequate appreciation both in the didactics and philosophy of mathematics. As a sort of a preliminary semantical map we make use of Reuben Hersh’s list of the distinctive usage of term „intuitive“ in contemporary mathematical discourse.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2020
|
tom 75
|
nr 6
431 – 445
EN
The question of ultimate constituents of the physical universe was one of the first questions at the dawn of the Western tradition of philosophy. At present, the most successful answers to this question are offered by the fundamental theories of elementary particle physics, which are formulated within the broader conceptual and mathematical apparatus of quantum field theory. The aim of this paper is to explain in an accessible manner the fundamental changes brought about by the transition from particle to field understanding of the universe in contemporary physics. The brief account of Newton’s ontological view of the world serves both as an introduction and as a background to what follows. The paper also intends to address and encourage philosophers interested in ontological problems to study the latest physical theories despite their mathematical complexity and apparent inaccessibility.
EN
The paper deals with some major themes in early Cassirer's philosophy of mathematics. It appears, that the basis of his thinking about mathematical objects and mathematical concept formation is his Neo-Kantian idealistic (transcendental) theory of concepts which he developed in opposition to what is called the 'traditional theory of concepts' going back to Aristotle. Cassirer often seeks to confirm his philosophical insights concerning mathematics by the interpretations the works of significant mathematicians. Therefore, the second part of the paper deals with Cassirer's attempt to find such a confirmation in famous Dedekind's theory of natural numbers. Cassirer's philosophical attitude to Dedekind's theory is compared with that of Russell. The author raises the sceptical question of whether Cassirer's view of mathematics - as developed in his early period - could be a sufficient or at least plausible basis for solving philosophical problems of the foundations of mathematics of that time.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
|
2018
|
tom 73
|
nr 4
269 – 281
EN
Among theoretical physicists there is a relatively long tradition of commenting on the historical and philosophical questions of their discipline in the form of books aimed at the wider public. Hawking and Mlodinow 2010 book offers the model-dependent realism as an interpretive framework for contemporary science. The article aims at a critical examination of the main points of this framework and comes to the conclusion that despite their efforts the authors did not free themselves from the traditional dispute between realism and anti-realism in the philosophy of science.
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