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EN
Purpose. The present study attempted to determine the effect of the number of hours spent playing computer games per week on somatic characteristics and the performance of selected coordination motor abilities. Methods. Ninety-seven prepubertal boys from rural areas of southern Poland were recruited. Selected coordination motor abilities were assessed by use of computer tests and a questionnaire was administered to determine the amount of time spent playing computer games. Basic somatic characteristics such as body height, body mass, body fat percentage (%PF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and body mass index (BMI) were measured. Descriptive statistics were calculated mean and standard deviation ( , sd) for the studied coordination abilities and somatic characteristics. One-way ANOVA for independent samples was employed to determine the differentiation between the results of the studied variables depending on the mean numbers of hours spent playing computer games per week. Results. Analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the results and the number of hours spent playing games, specifically for kinesthetic differentiation, spatial orientation, and the speed, accuracy, and precision of movements (in the number of committed errors). The lowest somatic characteristics including BMI was observed in the group of boys who spent the least amount of time playing computer games. Conclusions. It was found playing computer games 8 to 11 hours a week positively affected coordination motor ability, although individuals who played more than this amount of computer games had a higher incidence to be overweight or obese.
EN
The author examines the issue of conservation potential of the rural population of Ukraine. The changes that have taken place in the economy and society over the last twenty years have adversely affected the demographic structure of the Ukrainian village. The author proposes concreto measures to reduce the asymmetry between the town and the country.
EN
The article presents methods of computing the size of the population in the rural areas of the Kingdom of Poland in the second half of the 16th century. As there are no sources such as censuses the assessments of the population have been carried out on the basis of indirect sources, which cannot be precise, such as registers of land taxes of the years 1578–1581; they give information on the number of mansi (a mansus, laneus, a field measurement equal to 16.8 hectares) in a village that belonged or were used by peasants, village headmen, impoverished gentry, innkeepers or were just empty mansi. In addition to that, the tax was supposed to be paid by landless lodgers (with and without cattle), craftsmen, millers, ore miners and representatives of other proto industrial professions. According to a suggestion made by Irena Gieysztorowa the authors compare the data of the tax collection of 1552 (from peasant’s households) with the chronologically closest ones of the 1560s (the land taxes), which allows to regionally differentiate the conversion factor of the number of peasant households in relation to the taxed mansi, representative also of the turn of the 1570s and the 1580s. Moreover, the authors have used the findings of historical demography of the last decades, among other things the conversion factors of the size of households of several groups of rural population. On the basis of the research on the 16th century economy the authors have established the conversion factors of how big was the demand of the farms for permanent hired workforce.
7
Content available Ageing of rural population in Mazovian province
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EN
The paper presents statistical and spatial analysis of ageing of rural population in Mazovian Voivodship. The analysis using population statistics from the Central Statistical Office of Poland, carried out on a local LAU 2 level, where rural areas were defined according to DEGURBA classification, and using classical measures of ageing proves that all rural LAU 2s in the region are old by UNO criteria, however those adjacent to cities and Ostrołęka town are relatively younger. Population of Warsaw is older than population of adjacent rural communes. In case of rural LAU2s there is a strong correlation between the share of the old and Sauvy’s index, while there is no linkage between the share of old and double ageing index.
PL
Przedstawiono statystyczną i przestrzenną analizę poziomu starości ludności obszarów wiejskich województwa mazowieckiego, przeprowadzoną przy wykorzystaniu danych GUS, na poziomie gmin (LAU2), które zostały zdefiniowane jako wiejskie na podstawie klasyfikacji DEGURBA. Wyniki dowodzą, że wszystkie gminy regionu są stare według skali ONZ, jednak wiejskie gminy przyległe do dużych miast województwa oraz do Ostrołęki są relatywnie najmłodsze. Ludność Warszawy jest starsza niż ludność przyległych gmin wiejskich. W gminach wiejskich występuje silna korelacja pomiędzy udziałem osób starych (65+) a wskaźnikiem A. Sauvy oraz bardzo słaba korelacja pomiędzy udziałem osób starych i wskaźnikiem podwójnego starzenia.
EN
This study analyzes the abolition of hereditary subjection and compulsory labour duties (‘Robot’, or ‘Fronarbeit’, or ‘robota’) during and after the revolution of 1848/49. In the summer of 1848 the Vienna Reichstag was the scene of long and heated debates regarding the conditions and mechanisms for the abolition. The study describes these debates and the motivation behind the positions taken by the right-wing and left-wing factions in the parliament. The author then analyzes the law which eventually abolished hereditary subjection and Robot (31 August 1848), including the implementing regulations of 4 March 1849.
9
Content available remote The Geo-Demographic Dimension of Romanian Rural Space
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EN
Knowing, researching into and developing the rural space are activities of utmost importance for a country, both by the dimension of the rural space, expressed by the surface as such, and by the dimension of the demographic component (of the rural population). Referring to Romanian rural space, this is dominant, representing almost 94% of Romania's total surface (93.7%). In what concerns the demographic component (population), as it is known, this confers a particular dynamics to the rural space, generating a series of quantitative and qualitative aspects. At present the share of the rural population reaches 47% out of the total of Romania's population. Generally speaking, we can assert that the village and generally the Romanian village remains further on the main propeller of life. Thus the share of the rural population, besides the whole range of socio-demographic indicators, which can outline the degree of stability or instability of the rural space, as well as other basic indicators, such as the share of the rural population occupied in productive activities, socio-cultural services, tourism activities, etc., enhance the importance of the rural life from one country or another, reason for which the development of the rural space remains a problem of a national and international level. Consequently, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has raised the issue of the rural space at the level of European and Community policy.
EN
The media policy of television stations treats attracting viewers’ attention as the primordial principle of their operation. The use of pathological content that crosses the boundaries of the normative system on screen has become a new media practice and a strategy for increasing viewership. An example of such production is tv programme “Chłopaki do wzięcia”, described as ‘documentary’. Its protagonists are men and women from Polish villages and small towns who are looking for love. The author attempts to examine the ‘reality’ presented in the programme “Chłopaki do wzięcia” by means of content analysis, which is the starting point for the analysis of social representations. He uses theoretical categories concerning new media practices, such as: humiliation culture, victim show theory, stereotypes and media voyeurism. The aim of this article is an attempt to identify media images and specific interpretations of reality in the programme “Chłopaki do wzięcia”, which, in the author’s opinion, contribute to maintaining a negative image of rural inhabitants by transmitting social pathology to television. Moreover, the author makes an attempt to outline the policies followed by the producers of “Guys for the Taking” to explain its popularity and the reasons behind its creation.
EN
In this article we discuss and analyse changes in the sex-age structure of both the urban and the rural population of the Republic of Kazakhstan since independence (1991) and until 2013. Spatial analysis by age and sex was carried out for the urban and rural population of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The article focuses on the population of Astana and Almaty as cities of “republican subordination”. The aim of this article is to study and analyse the sex-age structure of the total population taking the urban and rural population from 1991 to 2013 separately. For comparison and analysis of statistical data in the dynamics, the data by sex and age of the urban and rural population for 1991, 2001 and 2011 were examined. Thus changes over 10 years are considered. The age groups for which the data were collected were based on differentiation of the population by economic status: pre-working (0-14 years), working (15-64), and post-working age (over 65 years).
PL
Artykuł Wioletty Knapik Jakość życia społeczności wiejskiej na podstawie badań porusza problematykę standardów jakości życia wiejskich społeczności lokalnych na przykładzie badań przeprowadzonych w Zakładzie Socjologii i Rozwoju Wsi, w ramach realizowanego grantu badawczego. Na potrzeby niniejszego artykułu przedstawione zostały niektóre aspekty tych badań, ukazane w wybranych 3 gminach wiejskich, położonych w województwie małopolskim: Lipnica Murowana, Słomniki i Tarnów. W artykule scharakteryzowano pojęcie „jakości życia”, przedstawiono je w różnych ujęciach teoretycznych. Sam termin jest niejednoznaczny, ponieważ interpretacja uzależniona jest od podejścia danej dyscypliny naukowej, zastosowanych metod pomiaru i badania. Jakość życia jest także wartością uzależnioną od własnej, subiektywnej oceny jednostki. Konkluzje z badań zamieszczone w niniejszym artykule uzupełnione zostały wybranymi wnioskami zamieszczonymi w raporcie „Diagnoza społeczna 2009. Warunki i jakość życia Polaków”, pod redakcją J. Czapińskiego i T. Panka. Z diagnozy tej wynika, że poziom jakości życia mierzonej odsetkiem gospodarstw domowych korzystających z usług różnych placówek ochrony zdrowia, ludności zamieszkałej w województwie małopolskim plasuje się, w porównaniu z innymi województwami, na średnim poziomie. Najwyższą jakość życia mierzoną liczbą zamieszkiwanych pokoi prezentuje Gmina Lipnica Murowana (56,9% respondentów zamieszkuje w 5, 6 lub w 7 pokojach) oraz w Gmina Tarnów (analogicznie: 50%). Podobnie w przypadku zamieszkiwania respondentów w pobliżu głównej drogi – Lipnica Murowana (86,5%) i Tarnów (85,0%). Natomiast najlepszy dostęp do infrastruktury technicznej mają respondenci z Gmin: Słomniki oraz Tarnów. Niemal wszyscy respondenci ocenili swoje gminy jako bezpieczne.
EN
The paper of Wioletta Knapik „The quality rural community’s life on the basis of research” upons the problems of quality standards rural – local communities life’s the basis of research which done in the Sociology and the Rural Development Institute (research project). In the paper was used some aspects of these research, presented in chosen 3 rural communes, situated in Lesser Poland voivodship: Lipnica Murowana, Słomniki and Tarnow. It was characterized the notion „life’s quality” and introduced in different theoretical seizures. The meaning of this term is ambiguous, because the interpretation is connected with the scientific discipline, applied measuring methods and researches. The life’s quality depends of the own, subjective estimation. Conclusions from research were supplemented with chosen conclusions published in the report “The Social Diagnosis 2009. Conditions and the life’s quality of Poles”, edited by J. Czapiński and T. Panek. On the basis of this diagnosis the life’s quality level in case health protection of population in Lesser Poland voivodship is on the average level, according to the percentage of households using services of different agencies (compared with other provinces). The highest life’s quality according to number of inhabited rooms present the Commune Lipnica Murowana (56,9% respondents inhabit in 5, 6 or in 7 rooms) and the Commune Tarnow (accordingly: 50%). By analogy to case of respondents who are accommodated nearby the high street – Lipnica Murowana (86,5%) and Tarnow (85,0%). However the respondents from Communes: Słomniki and Tarnow; they have best access to the technical infrastructure. Almost all respondents think that their own communes is safe.
EN
The study presents a comparison of the distribution of palm dermatoglyphs in the rural populations of different regions of Poland, namely, the Lublin region, the areas of Suwałki, Ostrołeka, and of the village of Giebło. A comparison of the occurrence frequency of dermatoglyphs in the above-mentioned areas reveals statistically significant differences between particular patterns. The differences result from ethnic isolation and isolation of the communities caused by geographical barriers.
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