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W artykule podjęta jest próba empirycznego rozpoznania sytuacji psychospołecznej kraju, a przede wszystkim jej zróżnicowania o charakterze regionalnym. Studia prowadzone były na podstawie zbioru informacji statystycznych potraktowanych jako wskaźniki przestrzennie zróżnicowanych zjawisk, procesów i zachowań społecznych. Operując dużym zasobem danych zastosowano (odrębnie dla miejskich i wiejskich obszarów Polski) obliczenia korelacji, opartą nań analizę czynnikową oraz metodę porządkowania na liniach problemowych. W efekcie wyodrębniono różne syndromy cech psychospołecznych, określając ich terytorialne zróżnicowanie, współwystępujące z nimi okoliczności i uwarunkowania.
The article is based on the research led within the framework of interdisciplinary investigations on the diagnosis of physical economy in the country (Research Problem 05) from which a psychoscial as one of the subjects of special interest had been separated. An assumption had been adopted that the diagnosis which would create the bases for physical policy cannot overlook such questions, like processes and phenomena of psychosocial character which are physically differentiated and conditioned by physical distribution. Despite the importance of these problems, no attempts were as far undertaken to examine the regional differentiation of psychosocial situation in our country and thus the choice of an adequate method became a kew problem. Studies were led according to voivodships on the basis of a collection of statistical information considered as indices of physically differentiated social phenomena, processes and behaviours. These indices were subjected to calculations of mutual correlations and next, to the analysis of factors. As a result, for urban and rural areas, three factors each were observed, concentrating various lists of indices adopted for calculations. For syndroms of phenomena designated in such a way, it was next possible to observe the physical dimension by application of the method of ordering on problem lines (Z. Dembowska and Z. Lachert) and to show the results of these calculations on the cartograms illustrating the physical differentiation of the intensity of occurring of the observed syndroms of social phenomena and processes. Three syndroms each of features characterizing the situation in towns and rural areas had been distinguished. In relation to towns (Fig. 24) they were: „social resourcefulness" (comprising various symptoms of the spirit of enterprising but also a greater delinquency, unlawful actions); „social desintegration" (comprising intensification of various symptoms of deviations and their correlates); phenomena designated as „patology of work" (comprising the level of unemployment, dismissals of groups, participation in strikes and occurrence of accidents at work. The syndroms of psychosocial features characteristic for rural areas (Fig. 57) are as follow: „urbanization level of rural areas and agriculture" (comprising symptoms of nonagricultural resourcefulness, increased development of special kinds of agriculture and positive balance of migrations); „activeness in agricultural production" (designated as intensification of application of fertilizers and as a level of mechanization of farms) and finally, as in cases of town ,.social desintegration". Apart from physical differentiation, efforts were made by means of calculation of correlations in order to observe for so designated factors, also the circumstances and conditions occurring jointly. This allowed to distinguish, on the one hand, the problem areas (the place of accumulation of many undesirable phenomena) and, on the other hand, the regions being a place of joint occurrence of relatively satisfactory course of psychosocial processes.
The paper presents issues related to the creation and establishment of hierarchical systems in a herd of cattle, as well as the importance of these issues for cattle breeders and producers. It also discusses the concepts of a flight zone and individual comfort zone, whose violation makes it difficult for the observer to determine the position of a given cow in the herd hierarchy. Aggressive and submissive behavior, as well asthe symptoms of domination, is also described. The definition of the herd hierarchy is often confused with that of leadership. Older animals are more likely to lead a herd, but there is no relation between their age and position in the hierarchy of the group. The paper discusses the significance of affinitive behavior for building positive relations between individuals. Social relationsin a group of cattle are based on the mutual recognition of individuals. Cattle are capable to recognize and memorize approximately 50-70 individuals of their own herd, which is an important fact to consider when technological groups are created.Thisissue is also discussed here.An importantfactor for reducing stress and for strengthening the relations and hierarchy in the herd is mutual grooming, which is often a symptom of „friendship” or a kind of emotional closeness between animals. It is believed that cows exhibit empathy, understood as fear or pain, which is reflected in the behavior of the entire herd.
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