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EN
Accepting the idea - as expressed by Lakoff and his successors - that metaphors constitute the primary forms of language, the author analyses narrative content concealed in metaphors, whilst in parallel demonstrating a metaphoric(al) status of theoretical notions (both in humanities and natural sciences). An account of profits and losses ensuing from omnipresence of metaphors, which is not infrequently imperceptible, leads one to the conclusion that theory should be treated as a kind of practice which - as a metaphor - is akin, by means of family similarity, to ideology. Theory will always remain a practice being rooted in empiricism, and deprived of objectivism which is otherwise ascribed to it.
2
Content available remote Dějiny teorie vyprávění: psaní a narativní strategie
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EN
Theorists of narrative studies often claim that the history of narrative theory is impossible to narrate because of its specific nature, consisting in the discontinuity of development due to disproportional introduction (and implementation) of the theory in various research cultures connected with diverse traditions of philological studies, which has resulted in a cluster-like character of particular narratologic systems. Narrative theory may represent a case study in the context concerned, i.e. in the discourse questioning historiographic methods in general. The question that narratologists may share with historians is this: are there any spheres of human culture and periods of its development so specific in their character as to prevent us from mediating them by means of current historiographic methods? A scheme for writing the history of narrative theory is presented here, based on negotiating between a history of ideas (including virtual links between related concepts dislocated in time and space) and an institutional history that enables us to understand the gaps. Various narrative modes are employed to re-construct the development of narrative studies as a coherent process. Recent attempts at replacing the history of narrative studies with a selection of canonic text are subject to criticism; the first synthetic essays on the topic Fludernik (2005) Herman (2005) are analyzed here in order to discern the principles of 'making a history of narrative theory possible'.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of unemployment from a new and fairly untypical perspective which was achieved thanks to the adopted form of narrative. The text consists of two stories about the experience of being unemployed: one told by the jobless person and the other by his life partner who is also the authoress of this article. The two stories later merge in the final section of the article where the fragments of the life-world of the unemployed and his partner presented here are juxtaposed with a wider discourse and reflection upon unemployment.
EN
This paper focuses on the negative narratives of the transformation in Poland, which describe the Round Table talks in 1989 as having been an act, showing at least the domination of the communist leaders, if not the betrayal by the opposition leaders. This is continued in the institutionalized procedures of lustration, in searching for secret police agents amongst others. The persistence of the topic as the foremost in the post-1989 political life of democratic Poland is explained by reference to the dramaturgical structure of the transformation as an emancipation that should have led to a cathartic culmination. In fact, in Poland the social drama (Turner 1974 ) had started much earlier, witnessed by the summer strikes of 1980 and the establishment of 'Solidarnosc' but was spoiled by martial law which was introduced by the communists on December 13th, 1981. Thus the freezing stage followed instead, while the emancipation was effected ten years later from above as a result of negotiated compromise. Apart from that emancipation, this meant the introduction of a capitalist economy while political freedom and democracy were the only elements kept on the publicly agreed upon agenda of the anti-communist movement. The negative narratives result from frustration, which in turn leads to symbolic lustration attempts at scapegoating the opposition leader(s).
EN
Rachel is the wife of Jacob, the immediate ancestor of the Israelites. Her life story which is scattered in the Book of Genesis seems to show that her life was a tragedy and she was almost a loser, though she was especially beloved by her husband. But a more in-depth reading suggests that the narrative about Rachel is actually so subtle as to imply that there is another possible interpretation of Rachel as a literary character: a life of dignity and passion. Rachel’s confrontation and even wrestle with hardships presents to readers a brave and active woman image, along with her happiness, sorrow, despair and hope. Meanwhile, her life is also a symbol of tragic, but unyielding historical experience that is shared by all the early matriarchs as well as the Israelites.
EN
The characteristic features of the later works by Paul Ricoeur (I have in mind his trilogy Time and Narrative and the anthropological summa Oneself as Another) include a 'linguistic turn' - concentration on the philosophical problems of language. The heart of the matter, however, concerns speech and a semiotic system isolated from the context and functioning according to conventionally established rules. Ricoeur considered both the vernacular and linguistic creations within the cultural circuit in the categories of a 'discursive instance' (a term introduced by Émile Benveniste), and as a consequence - within an existential and onto-anthropological perspective as the modus of the human condition: the hermeneutic envisages 'being-in-language' as an inseparable feature of 'being-in-the-world'. 'Discursive instances', i. e. acts of interpersonal dialogue and communication as well as the creation and reading of narrative works in the form of biographies or autobiographies, historiography and literature, poetry and art (mutatis mutandis including normative resolutions, political institutions, social organisations, etc.) are not reduced to the sphere of 'objective facts': the products of cultural creativity and the tools of social communication. From the hermeneutic point of view they are predominantly intermediaries of the self-understanding and self-confirmation of the human subject - his 'self-confirmation in being'. Narrative works in particular - novels - become the determinants of dynamic identity, 'being-oneself' (soi-meme) amidst the variable turns, tenuous connections and chaotic variability of life and history following their courses. The human 'I' emerges in the course of reading and interpreting linguistic products as a 'project' of the different possibilities of 'being-oneself' in a confrontation with 'the other' (un autre): we understand each other only by following a roundabout road amidst the signs of mankind rendered indelible in works of culture. Culture conceived as a human 'world of life' (Lebenswelt) can be, however, both an offer of individual self-realisation and a 'source of suffering' and personal alienation. Can one find oneself at home in this 'world' by 'changing it into speech' which according to Heidegger is the dwelling and refuge of the essence of man? This is the hope placed by Ricoeur in an erudite and extremely extensive hermeneutic 'dialogue' with traditional philosophy, claiming that an interpretation is the response to the fundamental alienation established by the objectivisation of man in the works of the discourse, comparable with the objectivisation that is the outcome of his work and art.
EN
The paper deals with one of the central topics of the philosophy of history - the narrative. Two different views of narrative and consequently of narrative explanation are distinguished. According to the first position (defended, for instance, by Hayden White), reality itself does not have a narrative structure, but since we are familiar with the narrative form, we can explain events if we present them as a story of a particular kind. According to the second position (maintained, for instance, by David Carr), in order to explain, we need to capture real connections (narrative or other) between events. That is, our narratives should depict structures already present in reality. The paper outlines these two general views and points out to the fact that they are based on different ontological presuppositions and different views of the nature of the explanatory power of narrative.
EN
The article deals with the writings of Sokrat Janowicz approaching them as a kind of identity narrative characterised by a twofold, complimentary function: consolidating the subject and maintaining the Belarussian ethnos. It is revealed that the narrative's cohesion and continuity, which writer confirms with his personal signature, become guarantees of the survival of Belarussian identity. The narrative space emphasises the places (Białystok, Krynki) that hierarchise and evaluate its constitutive elements.
EN
The study focuses on the reflection of quasi-argumentative strategies based on narrative. Nevertheless, the narrative perspective is not reflected by the authors, it is even published as a rational argumentation core. In contrast to secret narratives, I build a purposefully composed literary work that reveals the neglected aspects of human existence (using imagination). At the same time, I express the hypothesis in which the persuasiveness of literature lies: the deprivation of the author’s subject, which happens by placing the reader in the imaginary perspective of narration. In the extrapolation I see Roland Barthes and Václav Havel as conspirators of literature (they are hiding literary investment in their essayist contemplation) against Kundera’s straightforward and admitted art of the novel.
EN
The main views on the nature of narrative in Wittgenstein’s later philosophy are analysed. It is shown how, realizing the research narrative, he paid attention to the linguistic means of expression of our thoughts, reference to the actual reality, the logical component of argumentation. It is shown that in order to place worldview accents more clearly and strengthen the expressive effect of thought, Wittgenstein pragmatised the narrative, in particular, used metaphors, images of learning, took into account the historic-cultural context. It is important for him to show that the form of the narrative influences what meanings the interlocutor will comprehend. Through a system of micro- and macro-narratives, Wittgenstein intended to express his opinion as clearly as possible, although he made the reader an active participant in the narrative. The thinker did not deviate from the analytic-scientific standards of philosophizing, although he showed that the relevant analysis of the narrative is significantly complicated by the ambiguities of its interpretation, the uniqueness of human experience and the identity of each narrator’s value system. It is argued that a pragmatic approach to narrative analysis significantly expands the research methodology of the analytic thinker and, accordingly, makes it possible to deepen our understanding of reality and human existence, as well as more clearly define the specifics of their knowledge.
EN
People understand social reality as stories. Narrative is not only a linguistic matter; it is a powerful and early-acquired way an individual interprets social events, his/her own identity, and that of other people, as well as making decisions. The data confirm that interpretation of personal matters within a self-narrative framework related to a stronger motivation to fulfill personal goals and to life meaningfulness. The differences in sustained content of self-narratives result in style of adaptation, for example, in reactions to successes and failures. A narrative frame of understanding other persons also influences our social behavior. Presenting the story of an ill person, in comparison to a description of the illness, not only activates a narrative approach toward this person, but increases the probability of helping behavior in subjects - in this case, the promise of donations of bone marrow for leukemia patients or the willingness to spend time on soliciting money for medical treatment. A higher general ability in narrative interpretation strengthens the above effects. Results of other studies may suggest the kind of factors responsible for these effects.
12
Content available remote Postmoderní fikce a destabilizace metanarativu: Urmedvěd Jiřího Kratochvila
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EN
This article investigates how the hypothesis of a plural reality is manifest in the fictional world of Urmedved (Ur-bear-novel, 1999), a work by Jiri Kratochvil (b. 1940). He employs for this purpose the theoretical concept of Postmodern fiction as an expression of a style that foregrounds the ontological structure, which was developed by Brian McHale, and the model of the narrative universe, as constructed by Marie-Laure Ryan. The analysis of these premisses of Postmodern fiction is aimed chiefly at the recursive narrative structure of the novel, which enables the disruption of the ontological boundaries or the bridging of narrative levels of different ontological status. McHale's theoretical concept of the ontological dominant is explained by employing Lyotard's hypothesis about mistrust of metanarratives. Because metanarratives are based on the premiss of a single accessible reality, a single real world, this loss does not merely mean the loss of trust in ideology, but also disrupts the need for a single real world. Moreover, this need is important for us as human beings - it reveals itself to be the organization of discontinuous entities into coherent wholes (as in the case of myth). Kratochvil's Urmedved reveals the ideological abuse of the need for a single reality, while undermining this human need. Postmodern fiction may destabilize the metanarrative by laying bare the contrivedness that distances from reality an individual member of the society veiled in the metanarrative. By the very nature of the need for one real world, however, the metanarrative remains dear to us.
EN
This article focuses on the ways in which intertextual references influence the narration in Ihara Saikaku's 'Koshoku gonin onna' (Five Amorous Women). The author chooses two classical texts, i.e. 'Ise Monogatari' (The Tales of Ise) and Yoshida Kenko's 'Tsurezuregusa' (Essays in Idleness) to illustrate the range of purposes the literary allusions in 'Five Amorous Women' serve. The distinction is made between the purely stylistic use of quotations from 'Tsurezuregusa', which involve neither playing with the source text nor a change in the meaning of Saikaku's narrative, and the parodic use of 'Ise monogatari' evoked mainly to bring humour into the stories. The important difference in the tone used while referring to the two classical works is also emphasised.
EN
This article discusses the applicability of semantic field analysis to the study of development and change in important interpersonal relations on the example of parent-child relationships. The narrative material was compiled from responses of 348 teenagers and young adults aged 13-30 years. Participants wrote about their parents ('Tell me about your parents'). On the basis of the context, semantic fields were generated for the high-incidence phrase 'to love one's parents', which is the primary model of conceptualizing the parent-child relationship in our culture. The results demonstrate the material complexity of the 'love for parents' semantic field in the study group, and reveal the associative network of other semantic relations involving this concept. They also confirm the hypotheses on subtle developmental changes in the understanding of 'love for parents' between early adolescence and adulthood. The study presents the application of methods based on linguistic analysis of language to the analysis of developmental changes in important personal relationships.
EN
This article deals with the perception of historical memory and national identity in the era of posterity, as well as their impact on the formation of Russian national unity; determines the role of the latter in the emergence of a new identity of the Russian nation. The initial methodological position for this study is the idea that, even in post-truth conditions, historical memory and national identity retain their true value. The authors use polls of the Russian Public Opinion Research Center. The survey method is a telephone interview. According to the polls, 92% believe that it is important to know the history of Russia, while at the same time only 42% know it well. The results of the study can be used in various state programs, which are based on historical memory and aimed at the development of Russian national identity.
16
Content available remote Tvarosloví Žertu
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Bohemistyka
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2011
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tom 11
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nr 2
85-96
EN
The Joke by Milan Kundera is divided into seven parts; the first six parts are narrated as a monologue, whereas the last part is narrated by three persons. The structure of the novel also includes a paradox principle with four types of paradox. The said constructional means are complemented with synchronous moments.
EN
The presented study makes a brief summary of the history of historiography of the Hungarian philosophy from the first half of the 19th century up to present days. Afterwards it deals with main tendencies of the contemporary historiography. It introduces the main results of innovations in this field as follows: the refusal of the standard narrative in the Hungarian philosophy, the reconstruction of forming canons, the reinterpretation of the function of the so called national philosophy as well as places of Erdélyi and Szontagh in it and the revelation of specific features of the so called school philosophy.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
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2015
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tom 70
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nr 4
307 – 320
EN
„Procope“, a series of the Parisien publishing house Cerf, is designed to elicit critical discussions about selected authors, writings or issues. The first in this series has been Ricoeur’s Time and narrative in discussion published in 1989. Included in it are seven critiques or responses to Ricoeur’s Time and narrative written by philosophers, poets, and linguists, as well as the author’s replies.
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Content available remote PUZZLES AND CONUNDRUMS IN PRUS' 'THE DOLL' (Duze i male zagadki 'Lalki')
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EN
Under this heading the author discusses a host of literary puzzles and conundrums to be found in Boleslaw Prus' 'The Doll', ie. information withheld or passed over, places of indeterminacy, moot points, scenes in which the characters' behaviour, experiences and utterances appear disconcertingly ambivalent or ambiguous, as well as the problem of varying degrees of reliability of the accounts and observations stemming from narrative intermediaries. All those 'uncertainties' used to be treated as flaws, though, it was always stressed, excusable flaws. They were either blamed on the heavy-handed censorship the writer had to face or treated as minor, insignificant details. Nowadays our reading of 'The Doll' seems to be different. The modern reader will certainly not be put off by the occasionally blurred outlines of Prus' fictional world or the uncertainty bedevilling all attempts to give it a clear and fixed contour. Nor will he be annoyed by the Protean changeability of Prus' characters or the repeated shifts from illusion and to disenchantment in his novel. Today, both the well-read general reader and the dedicated student of literature may be expected to savour all those puzzles and treat them as early signs of a process of transition that the novel would undergo in the following decades.
EN
This essay proposes dissolution of the so-called ‘semantic problem of fictional names’ by arguing that fictional names are only fictionally proper names. The ensuing idea that fictional texts do not encode propositional content is accompanied by an explanation of the contentful effects of fiction grounded on the idea of impartation. After some preliminaries about (referring and empty) genuine proper names, this essay explains how a fiction’s content may be conveyed by virtue of the fictional impartations provided by a fictional teller. This idea is in turn developed with respect to homodiegetic narratives such as Doyle’s Holmes stories and to heterodiegetic narratives such as Jane Austen’s Emma. The last parts of the essay apply this apparatus to cases of so-called ‘talk about fiction’, as in our commentaries about those stories and that novel.
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